We bring together physicians from multiple specialties including neurology, neurosurgery, internal medicine, and emergency medicine to provide comprehensive evaluation and management of patients with carotid artery diseases. Our staff also works with clinical researchers to improve the chances that a patient can prevent, or recover optimally, from a stroke. Our researchers are leaders in identifying the causes and conditions of disease and developing new treatments, cures and preventive measures. Because of our emphasis on collaboration and interdisciplinary cooperation, our researchers achieve remarkable results that translate to hope for patients and families.

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Carotid Artery Disease

What is carotid artery disease?

Carotid artery disease, also called carotid artery stenosis, occurs when the carotid arteries, the main blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to the brain, become narrowed. The narrowing of the carotid arteries is most commonly related to atherosclerosis (a buildup of plaque, which is a deposit of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin in the inner lining of an artery). Atherosclerosis, or "hardening of the arteries," is a vascular disease (disease of the arteries and veins). Carotid artery disease is similar to coronary artery disease, in which blockages occur in the arteries of the heart, and may cause a heart attack.

To better understand how carotid artery disease affects the brain, a basic review of the anatomy of the circulation system of the brain follows.

What are the carotid arteries?

The main supply of blood to the brain is carried by the carotid arteries. The carotid arteries branch off from the aorta (the largest artery in the body) a short distance from the heart, and extend upward through the neck carrying oxygen-rich blood to the brain.

There are 2 carotid arteries: the right and left. Each carotid artery then branches into an internal carotid artery and an external carotid artery. One pair (external and internal) is located on each side of the neck. Just as a pulse can be felt in the wrists, a pulse can also be felt or heard on either side of the neck over the carotid arteries.

Why are the carotid arteries important?

Because the carotid arteries deliver blood to the brain, carotid artery disease can have serious implications by reducing the flow of oxygen to the brain. The brain needs a constant supply of oxygen in order to function. Even a brief interruption in blood supply can cause problems. Brain cells begin to die after just a few minutes without blood or oxygen. If the narrowing of the carotid arteries becomes severe enough to block blood flow, or a piece of atherosclerotic plaque breaks off and obstructs blood flow to the brain, a stroke may occur.

What causes carotid artery disease?

Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of carotid artery disease. Atherosclerosis is a slow, progressive, vascular disease. However, the disease has the potential to progress rapidly. It is generally characterized by the accumulation of fatty deposits along the innermost layer of the arteries. If the disease process progresses, plaque formation may take place. Plaque is made up of deposits of smooth muscle cells, fatty substances, cholesterol, calcium, and cellular waste products. This thickening narrows the arteries and can decrease blood flow or completely block the flow of blood to the brain.

Risk factors associated with atherosclerosis include:

  • Older age

  • Male

  • Family history

  • Race or ethnicity

  • Genetic factors

  • Hyperlipidemia (elevated fats in the blood)

  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)

  • Smoking

  • Diabetes

  • Obesity

  • Diet high in saturated fat

  • Lack of exercise

A risk factor is anything that may directly increase or be associated with a person's chance of developing a disease. It may be an activity, such as smoking, diet, family history, or many other things. Different diseases have different risk factors.

Although these risk factors increase a person's risk, they do not necessarily cause the disease. Some people with 1 or more risk factors never develop the disease, while others develop disease and have no known risk factors. Knowing your risk factors to any disease can help to guide you into the appropriate actions, including changing behaviors and being clinically monitored for the disease.

What are the symptoms of carotid artery disease?

Carotid artery disease may be asymptomatic (without symptoms) or symptomatic (with symptoms). Asymptomatic carotid artery disease is the presence of a significant amount of atherosclerotic buildup without obstructing enough blood flow to cause symptoms. However, a sufficiently tight stenosis will not always cause symptoms. Symptomatic carotid artery disease may result in either a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and/or a stroke (brain attack).

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a sudden or temporary loss of blood flow to an area of the brain, usually lasting a few minutes to 1 hour. Symptoms go away entirely within 24 hours, with complete recovery. A stroke, also called a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is when symptoms persist. Symptoms of a TIA or CVA may include, but are not limited to, the following :

  • Sudden weakness or clumsiness of an arm and/or leg on one side of the body

  • Sudden paralysis (inability to move) of an arm and/or leg on one side of the body

  • Loss of coordination or movement

  • Confusion, decreased ability to concentrate, dizziness, fainting, and/or headache

  • Numbness or loss of sensation (feeling) in the face

  • Numbness or loss of sensation in an arm and/or leg

  • Temporary loss of vision or blurred vision

  • Inability to speak clearly or slurred speech

TIA may be related to severe narrowing or blockage or from small pieces of an atherosclerotic plaque breaking off, traveling through the bloodstream, and lodging in small blood vessels in the brain. With TIA, there is rarely permanent brain damage.

Call for medical help immediately if you suspect a person is having a TIA, as it may be a warning sign that a stroke is about to occur. Not all strokes, however, are preceded by TIAs.

Stroke (CVA) is another indicator of carotid artery disease. The symptoms of a stroke are the same as for a TIA. A stroke is loss of blood flow (ischemia) to the brain that continues long enough to cause permanent brain damage. Brain cells begin to die after just a few minutes without oxygen. The area of dead cells in tissues is an infarct.

The area of the brain that suffered the loss of blood flow will determine what the physical or mental disability may be. This may include impaired ability with movement, speech, thinking and memory, bowel and bladder function, eating, emotional control, and other vital body functions. Recovery from the specific ability affected depends on the size and location of the stroke. A stroke may result in problems, such as weakness in an arm or leg or may cause paralysis, loss of speech, or even death.

The symptoms of carotid artery disease may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your doctor for a diagnosis.

How is carotid artery disease diagnosed?

In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for carotid artery disease may include any, or a combination, of the following:

  • Auscultation (listening to) of carotid arteries. Placement of a stethoscope over the carotid artery to listen for a particular sound called a bruit (pronounced brew-ee). A bruit is an abnormal sound that is produced by blood passing through a narrowed artery. A bruit is generally considered a sign of an atherosclerotic artery; however, an artery may be diseased without producing this sound.

  • Carotid artery duplex scan. A type of vascular ultrasound study performed to assess the blood flow of the carotid arteries. A carotid artery duplex scan is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure. A probe called a transducer sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard. When the transducer (like a microphone) is placed on the carotid arteries at certain locations and angles, the ultrasonic sound waves move through the skin and other body tissues to the blood vessels, where the waves echo off of the blood cells. The transducer picks up the reflected waves and sends them to an amplifier, which makes the ultrasonic sound waves audible. Absence or faintness of these sounds may indicate an obstruction to the blood flow.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body. To have this test done, you lie inside a big tube while magnets pass around your body. It is very loud. Sometimes it is done with IV contrast injected into your veins and sometimes not. 

  • Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). A diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of magnetic resonance technology (MRI) and intravenous (IV) contrast dye to visualize blood vessels. Contrast dye causes blood vessels to appear opaque on the MRI image, allowing the doctor to visualize the blood vessels being evaluated.

  • Computed tomography scan (also called a CT or CAT scan). A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays. Like an MRI, it is sometimes done with IV contrast injected into your veins and sometimes not. 

  • Angiography. An invasive procedure used to assess the degree of blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries by taking X-ray images while a contrast dye is injected. The contrast dye helps to visualize the shape and flow of blood through the arteries as X-ray images are made.

Treatment for carotid artery disease

Specific treatment for carotid artery disease will be determined by your doctor based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the disease

  • Your signs and symptoms

  • Your tolerance of specific medications, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the disease

  • Your opinion or preference

Carotid artery disease (asymptomatic or symptomatic) in which the narrowing of the carotid artery is less than 50% is most often treated medically. Asymptomatic disease with less than 70% narrowing may also be treated medically, depending on the individual situation.

Medical treatment for carotid artery disease may include:

  • Modification of risk factors. Risk factors that may be modified include smoking, elevated cholesterol levels, elevated blood glucose levels, lack of exercise, poor dietary habits, and elevated blood pressure.

  • Medications. Medications that may be used to treat carotid artery disease include:

    • Antiplatelet medications. Medications used to decrease the ability of platelets in the blood to stick together and cause clots. Aspirin, clopidogrel, and dipyridamole are examples of antiplatelet medications.

    • Antihyperlipidemics. Medications used to lower lipids (fats) in the blood, particularly cholesterol. Statins are a group of antihyperlipidemic medications, and include simvastatin, atorvastatin, and pravastatin, among others. Studies have shown that certain statins can decrease the thickness of the carotid artery wall and increase the size of the lumen (opening) of the artery.

    • Antihypertensives. Medications used to lower blood pressure. There are several different groups of medications which act in different ways to lower blood pressure.

In people with narrowing of the carotid artery greater than 50% to 69%, a more aggressive treatment may be recommended, particularly in people with symptoms. Surgical treatment decreases the risk for stroke after symptoms such as TIA or minor stroke, especially in people with an occlusion (blockage) of more than 70% who are good candidates for surgery.

Surgical treatment of carotid artery disease includes:

Carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Carotid endarterectomy is a procedure used to remove plaque and clots from the carotid arteries, located in the neck. Endarterectomy may help prevent a stroke from occurring in people with symptoms with a carotid artery narrowing of 70% or more.

Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS). Carotid angioplasty with stenting is an option for patients who are high risk for carotid endarterectomy. This is a minimally invasive procedure in which a very small hollow tube, or catheter, is advanced from a blood vessel in the groin to the carotid arteries. Once the catheter is in place, a balloon may be inflated to open the artery and a stent is placed. A stent is a cylinder-like tube made of thin metal-mesh framework used to hold the artery open. Because there is a risk of stroke from bits of plaque breaking off during the procedure, an apparatus, called an embolic protection device, may be used. An embolic protection device is a filter (like a small basket) that is attached on a guidewire to catch any debris that may break off during the procedure.

Strokes and Heart Attacks: What's the Difference?

Although their symptoms and effects can be similar, strokes (brain attacks) and heart attacks are 2 different medical problems. Both are vascular events, meaning they involve the blood vessels, the arteries in particular. Both conditions can also lead to disability and death.

Heart attack

Heart attacks are almost always the result of progressive coronary artery disease (CAD). In CAD, the arteries that supply blood to the heart become choked with fatty deposits called plaque, which narrows and blocks arteries. The condition is called atherosclerosis. When pieces of plaque break free, blood clots can form, blocking the flow of blood to the heart. When that happens, the heart muscle does not get the oxygen and nutrients that it needs, and parts of the heart may become damaged or die. This is a heart attack, also known as myocardial infarction.


When the blood supply to the brain is interrupted, causing a part of the brain to die, it is called a stroke, or "brain attack." A stroke requires immediate medical attention. Stroke is similar to a heart attack, but it affects the blood vessels in the brain instead of the heart.

When the flow of blood to the brain is blocked by a clot, it's called an ischemic stroke. Another type of stroke, called a transient ischemic attack, is sometimes called a "mini stroke" and is caused by a temporary clot. A TIA may precede a large stroke, so it needs immediate and complete medical evaluation. 

A hemorrhagic stroke happens when a blood vessel in the brain bursts and bleeds, depriving an area of the brain of blood and causing damage inside the brain. Hemorrhagic stroke are classified in 2 ways, defined by the type of blood vessel causing the damage. The most common — an aneurysm — occurs when an artery or ordinary blood vessel within the brain balloons, weakens, and bursts. In rare cases, an abnormal, tangled mass of blood vessels will form in the brain. This is called an arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Sometimes, one of the vessels within the AVM will burst, causing bleeding and compression in the brain.

Causes of heart attack and stroke

The causes for heart attack and stroke are similar, yet diverse. Both share many of the same risk factors, such as family history, obesity, smoking, lack of physical activity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and vascular disease. But there are some differences, too:

  • Gender. Men tend to have more heart attacks, and have them at an earlier age, than women. But, while more men have strokes than women, women in all age groups are more likely to die from stroke.

  • Race. African-Americans have higher rates of CAD and more severe high blood pressure than whites. CAD is also more prominent in Mexican-Americans, American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Pacific Islanders, in part because of higher rates of obesity and diabetes, two other common risk factors for both heart attack and stroke.

Another risk factor for stroke is a transient ischemic attack (TIA), also called a "mini-stroke." TIAs produce the same symptoms as a stroke but don't cause lasting damage. A person who has had one or more TIAs is almost 10 times more likely to have a stroke, the American Stroke Association says. Consider a TIA a medical emergency and seek immediate medical help.

Reducing your risk

To reduce your risk for heart attack and stroke, it's important to control your risk factors. This means making healthy lifestyle choices:

  • Quit smoking if you smoke.

  • Eat a healthy diet.

  • Get plenty of exercise.

  • Control high blood pressure, diabetes, and cholesterol with medications, if necessary. If you have these risk factors and a strong family history of stroke, then antiplatelet therapy may help. 

The American Heart Association recommends that you begin screening for heart and vascular disease by age 20. Screening includes measuring your blood pressure, body mass index (an assessment of your weight and height), waist circumference, and pulse rate at each regular health care visit, or at least every 2 years. If you are at normal risk, you should get a cholesterol profile every 5 years — more often if your risk is higher.  


Cardiothoracic Surgeons

Benjamin Brooke, M.D., Ph.D.

Dr. Brooke grew up in Salt Lake City and received his Doctor of Medicine from the University of Utah before heading east to complete his internship and residency in General Surgery at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. During his Halsted residency, he received his Ph.D. in Clinical Investigation at the Johns Hopkins B... Read More


Vascular Surgery


University Hospital (801) 581-3495

Daniel M. Ihnat, M.D.

Dr. Ihnat is board certified in general and vascular surgery and has been performing vascular surgery for over 13 years. He evaluates and treats the full spectrum of peripheral vascular diseases with both minimally invasive endovascular and open surgical techniques. Dr. Ihnat performs abdominal and thoracic aor... Read More


Vascular Surgery


Specialty Clinic (801) 581-3495
Cardiovascular Clinic (801) 581-3495
University Hospital (801) 581-3495

Daniel V. Kinikini, M.D.

Daniel V. Kinikini, M.D. is an Assistant Professor in the Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Utah School of Medicine. He began his medical career here at the University of Utah, receiving his M.D. in 1997. He completed two years of a residency in Family Medicine in Boise, Idaho before beginning a res... Read More


Vascular Surgery


University Hospital (801) 581-3495

Larry W. Kraiss, M.D.

Larry W. Kraiss, M.D. is Professor and Chief of the Division of Vascular Surgery at the University of Utah. He is a graduate of Vanguard University of Southern California (BA: Science-Chemistry) and Baylor College of Medicine (M.D.). He took his general and vascular surgical training at the University of Wash... Read More


Vascular Surgery


Cache Valley Specialty Hospital (801) 581-3495
Uintah Basin Medical Center (801) 581-3495
University Hospital (801) 581-3495

Michelle T. Mueller, M.D.

Michelle Mueller, M.D. has been a member of the Division of Vascular Surgery since 2003, when she became a Vascular Surgery fellow. She became a full time faculty member in 2004.
Dr. Mueller received her medical degree from the University of Colorado, then compl... Read More


Vascular Surgery


Veterans Administration Medical Center (801) 581-3495

Mark R. Sarfati, M.D.

Dr. Mark Sarfati is board certified in General Surgery and Vascular Surgery. He serves as Associate Professor of Surgery (clinical) and as Adjunct Assistant Professor Radiology at the University of Utah. He is actively involved in several clinical research studies.
... Read More


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Memorial Hospital of Sweetwater County (801) 581-3495
University Hospital (801) 581-3495

Monica Hatch, PA-C

Monica is a Physician Assistant specializing in Vascular Surgery. She joined the University of Utah, Division of Vascular Surgery in 2012. She enjoys the challenges of providing medical and surgical care of vascular patients.... Read More


Vascular Surgery


University Hospital (801) 581-3495

Denise L. Jost, N.P.

Dee Jost, APRN, is a board certified family nurse practitioner. She has been a provider at the University of Utah Medical Center since 1994 and for Vascular Surgery since 1999. Prior to obtaining her advance practice degree, she worked within the UUMC Burn ICU and she maintains her interest in wound care as pa... Read More


Family Nurse Practitioner, Vascular Surgery


University Hospital (801) 581-3495

Joanna Lynch, PA-C

Joanna Lynch is a Physician Assistant with the Division of Vascular Surgery since joining the University of Utah in 2005. She provides care to hospitalized vascular surgery patients, assists in the operating room in open and endovascular surgeries and is a resource for dialysis centers. Since 2006 she has serve... Read More


Physician Assistant, Vascular Surgery


University Hospital (801) 581-3495

Heidi Orr, APRN, DNP

Heidi is a Nurse Practitioner specializing in Acute Care. She joined the University of Utah, Division of Vascular Surgery in 2014. Prior to being on staff here she worked at Intermountain Healthcare. She enjoys providing complete medical and surgical care of vascular patients. ... Read More


Vascular Surgery


University Hospital (801) 581-3495


Vascular Surgery


University Hospital (801) 581-8301

Laura D. Wood, PA-C

Laura is a Physician Assistant specializing in Vascular Surgery. She joined the University of Utah, Division of Vascular Surgery in 2008. Prior to being on staff here she worked at Primary Children's Medical Center, Cardiothoracic Surgery. She enjoys providing complete medical and surgical care of vascular pa... Read More


Vascular Surgery


University Hospital (801) 581-3495


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University Hospital
50 N Medical Drive
Salt Lake City, UT 84132
(801) 581-2121