About

Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting or CABG (often pronounced cabbage) is one of the most commonly performed open heart operations in the United States. It is performed when there is either a narrowing or blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries (heart attack). Increasing blood flow to the heart muscle can relieve chest pain and reduce the risk of a heart attack. Bypass surgery improves the blood flow to the heart with a new route, or bypass, around the section of narrowed artery.

This surgery involves taking a segment of a healthy blood vessel, usually a vein in your leg or an artery from either your chest or arm, and sewing it to bypass the section of the diseased coronary artery. This creates a new route for blood to flow so that the heart muscle will get the oxygen-rich blood it needs to work properly. Depending on how many coronary arteries are blocked, one, two, three, or more bypasses can be done.

When coronary bypass is not enough, transmyocardial revascularization (TMR) can be considered.

Heart Attack

What is a heart attack (myocardial infarction)?

A heart attack, or myocardial infarction, occurs when one or more regions of the heart muscle experience a severe or prolonged lack of oxygen caused by blocked blood flow to the heart muscle.

The blockage is often a result of atherosclerosis—a buildup of plaque composed of fat deposits, cholesterol, and other substances. When a plaque ruptures, a blood clot quickly forms. The blood clot is the actual cause of the heart attack.

If the blood and oxygen supply is cut off, muscle cells of the heart begin to suffer damage and start to die. Irreversible damage begins within 30 minutes of blockage. The result is dysfunction of the heart muscle in the area affected by the lack of oxygen or cell death.

What are the risk factors for heart attack?

There are two types of risk factors for heart attack, including the following:

Inherited (or genetic)

Acquired

Inherited or genetic risk factors are risk factors you are born with that cannot be changed, but can be improved with medical management and lifestyle changes.

Acquired risk factors are caused by activities that we choose to include in our lives that can be managed through lifestyle changes and clinical care.

Inherited (genetic) factors: Who is most at risk?

  • People with inherited hypertension (high blood pressure)

  • People with inherited low levels of HDL (high-density lipoproteins), high levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) blood cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides

  • People with a family history of heart disease (especially with onset before age 55)

  • Aging men and women

  • People with type 1 diabetes

  • Women, after the onset of menopause (generally, men are at risk at an earlier age than women, but after the onset of menopause, women are equally at risk)

Acquired risk factors: Who is most at risk?

  • People with acquired hypertension (high blood pressure)

  • People with acquired low levels of HDL (high-density lipoproteins), high levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) blood cholesterol, or high levels of triglycerides

  • Cigarette smokers

  • People who are under a lot of stress

  • People who drink too much alcohol

  • People who lead a sedentary lifestyle

  • People overweight by 30 percent or more

  • People who eat a diet high in saturated fat

  • People with type 2 diabetes

A heart attack can happen to anyone—it is only when we take the time to learn which of the risk factors apply to us, specifically, can we then take steps to eliminate or reduce them.

Managing heart attack risk factors

Managing your risks for a heart attack begins with:

  • Examining which of the risk factors apply to you, and then taking steps to eliminate or reduce them.

  • Becoming aware of conditions like hypertension or abnormal cholesterol levels, which may be "silent killers."

  • Modifying risk factors that are acquired (not inherited) through lifestyle changes. Consult your doctor as the first step in starting right away to make these changes.

  • Consulting your health care provider soon to determine if you have risk factors that are genetic or inherited and cannot be changed, but can be managed medically and through lifestyle changes.

What are the warning signs of a heart attack?

The following are the most common symptoms of a heart attack. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Severe pressure, fullness, squeezing, pain and/or discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts for more than a few minutes

  • Pain or discomfort that spreads to the shoulders, neck, arms, or jaw

  • Chest pain that increases in intensity

  • Chest pain that is not relieved by rest or by taking nitroglycerin

  • Chest pain that occurs with any/all of the following (additional) symptoms:

    • Sweating, cool, clammy skin, and/or paleness

    • Shortness of breath

    • Nausea or vomiting

    • Dizziness or fainting

    • Unexplained weakness or fatigue

    • Rapid or irregular pulse

Although chest pain is the key warning sign of a heart attack, it may be confused with indigestion, pleurisy, pneumonia, or other disorders.

The symptoms of a heart attack may resemble other medical conditions or problems. Always consult your health care provider for a diagnosis.

Responding to heart attack warning signs

If you or someone you know exhibits any of the above warning signs, act immediately. Call 911, or your local emergency number.

Treatment for a heart attack

The goal of treatment for a heart attack is to relieve pain, preserve the heart muscle function, and prevent death.

Treatment in the emergency department may include:

  • Intravenous therapy such as nitroglycerin and morphine.

  • Continuous monitoring of the heart and vital signs.

  • Oxygen therapy improves oxygenation to the damaged heart muscle.

  • Pain medication decreases pain, and, in turn, decreases the workload of the heart, thus, the oxygen demand of the heart decreases.

  • Cardiac medication, such as beta-blockers, promote blood flow to the heart, improve the blood supply, prevent arrhythmias, and decrease heart rate and blood pressure.

  • Fibrinolytic therapy is the intravenous infusion of a medication which dissolves the blood clot, thus, restoring blood flow.

  • Antithrombin/antiplatelet therapy is used to prevent further blood clotting.

  • Antihyperlipidemics are medications used to lower lipids (fats) in the blood, particularly Low Density Lipid (LDL) cholesterol. Statins are a group of antihyperlipidemic medications, and include simvastatin (Zocor), atorvastatin (Lipitor), and pravastatin (Pravachol), among others. Bile acid sequestrants—colesevelam, cholestyramine, and colestipol—and nicotinic acid (niacin) are two other types of medications that may be used to reduce cholesterol levels.

Additional procedures to restore coronary blood flow may be used. Those procedures include:

  • Coronary angioplasty. With this procedure, a balloon is used to create a bigger opening in the vessel to increase blood flow. This is often followed by the insertion of a stent into the coronary artery to help keep the vessel open. Although angioplasty is performed in other blood vessels elsewhere in the body, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) refers to angioplasty in the coronary arteries to permit more blood flow into the heart. PCI is also called percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). There are several types of PTCA procedures, including:

    • Balloon angioplasty. A small balloon is inflated inside the blocked artery to open the blocked area.

    • Coronary artery stent. A tiny coil is expanded inside the blocked artery to open the blocked area and is left in place to keep the artery open.

    • Atherectomy. The blocked area inside the artery is cut away by a tiny device on the end of a catheter.

    • Laser angioplasty. A laser used to "vaporize" the blockage in the artery.

  • Coronary artery bypass. Most commonly referred to as simply "bypass surgery" or CABG (pronounced "cabbage"), this surgery is often performed in people who have angina (chest pain) and coronary artery disease (where plaque has built up in the arteries). During the surgery, a bypass is created by grafting a piece of a vein above and below the blocked area of a coronary artery, enabling blood to flow around the obstruction. Veins are usually taken from the leg, but arteries from the chest or arm may also be used to create a bypass graft.

Cardiothoracic Surgeons

David A. Bull, M.D.

David Bull, MD, is a member of the Thoracic Oncology Program, a joint effort between Huntsman Cancer Institute and the University of Utah Hospitals and Clinics. The program was developed to offer consultation, diagnosis, and treatment for all chest cancers. Bull is a professor in the Department of Surgery, Divis... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiac Mechanical Support, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Coronary Revascularization, Esophageal Surgery, Heart Transplant, Lung Cancer, Lung Transplant, Valvular Heart Disease

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 581-5311

Phillip T. Burch, M.D.

Dr. Burch performs repairs for a wide variety of congenital cardaic anomalies. In additon to clinical responsibilities, Dr. Burch has research interests in single ventricle physiology as well as in derangements in normal neonatal metabolism caused by cardiac surgery.... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery, Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery

Locations:

Primary Children's Hospital (801) 662-5577

Aaron W. Eckhauser, M.D., M.S.C.I

I joined the University of Utah, Division of Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery in 2012. I am board certified by the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Thoracic Surgery. My clinical interests are focused on caring for all patients, from neonates to adults, with congenital heart defects. I have ... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiac Mechanical Support, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Heart Transplant, Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery

Locations:

A location has not yet been added by this physician.

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery

Locations:

A location has not yet been added by this physician.

Ganesh S. Kumpati, M.D.

Dr Kumpati performs adult cardiac surgery, thoracic surgery, and vascular surgery. Dr Kumpati has significant experience in both surgical and endovascular management of aortic disease, including endovascular aneurysm repair. Prior to joining the University of Utah in August 2011, Dr Kumpati was in private prac... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 581-5311
Veterans Administration Medical Center (801) 582-1565

Stephen McKellar, M.D., M.Sc.

Dr. McKellar is a native of Salt Lake City and received his Bachelor of Arts from the University of Utah and his Doctor of Medicine from the George Washington University School of Medicine. He completed his General Surgical and Cardiothoracic Surgical training at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota in a com... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiac Mechanical Support, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Coronary Revascularization, Heart Failure, Heart Transplant, Lung Transplant, Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery, Minimally Invasive Lung & Esophageal Surgery, Valvular Heart Disease

Locations:

A location has not yet been added by this physician.

Amit N. Patel, M.D., B.S., M.S.

Amit Patel, MD, MS, is an associate professor in the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery at the University of Utah School of Medicine and Director of Clinical Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering at the University of Utah. His clinical interests include heart surgery for coronary disease, valve repair and... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery, Heart Failure, Heart Stem Cell Therapy, Heart Transplant, Lung Transplant, Valvular Heart Disease

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 587-7946

Craig H. Selzman, M.D.

Dr. Craig Selzman is an Associate Professor of Surgery in the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery at the University of Utah who specializes in the care of patients requiring heart surgery. He earned his undergraduate degree at Amherst College and medical degree at Baylor College of Medicine. He received his Gener... Read More

Specialties:

Adult Congenital Heart Disease, Cardiac Mechanical Support, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Coronary Revascularization, Heart Failure, Heart Stem Cell Therapy, Heart Transplant, Lung Transplant, Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery, Surgical Ventricular Restoration, Valvular Heart Disease

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 587-9348

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery, Nurse Practitioner

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 581-0434

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery, Physician Assistant

Locations:

A location has not yet been added by this physician.

Terri M. Hancock, DNP, ACNP-BC

Terri Hancock, DNP, ACNP-BC, is a board certified Acute Care Nurse Practitioner with the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery at the University of Utah. As a Cardiothoracic Surgery Nurse Practitioner, Terri is interested in evaluating and improving the overall quality of care and clinical efficiency of cardiac and... Read More

Specialties:

Acute Care Nurse Practitioner, Cardiothoracic Surgery

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 581-5311

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery, Physician Assistant

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 231-2200

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery

Locations:

A location has not yet been added by this physician.

Nathan C. Sontum, PA-C, M.H.S.

PA-C for department of CT surgery 2010-Present... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery

Locations:

A location has not yet been added by this physician.

Scott A. Tatum, PA-C

Scott came to the University over 6 years ago from private practice. As a trainer and consultant for Endoscopic Vein harvesting, he has effectively introduced and incorporated new technology and procedures into the University healthcare system. As the senior physician assistant in the division of cardiothoraci... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery, Physician Assistant

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 581-2121

Locations

University Campus
University Hospital
50 N Medical Drive
Salt Lake City, UT 84132
Map
(801) 581-2121
Primary Children's Hospital
100 N Mario Capecchi Dr
Salt Lake City, UT 84132
(801) 662-1000
Veterans Administration Medical Center
500 Foothill Drive
Salt Lake City, UT 84148
(801) 582-1565