Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

What is a ventricular septal defect?

A ventricular septal defect is an opening in the dividing wall (septum) between the two lower chambers of the heart known as the right and left ventricles. VSD is a congenital (present at birth) heart defect. As the fetus grows, a problem with how the heart develops during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy results in a VSD.

Normally, oxygen-poor (blue) blood returns to the right atrium from the body, travels to the right ventricle, then is pumped into the lungs where it receives oxygen. Oxygen-rich (red) blood returns to the left atrium from the lungs, passes into the left ventricle, and then is pumped out to the body through the aorta.

A ventricular septal defect allows oxygen-rich (red) blood to pass from the left ventricle, through the opening in the septum, and then mix with oxygen-poor (blue) blood in the right ventricle.

What are the different types of VSD?

There are 4 basic types of VSD:

  • Membranous VSD. This is an opening in the upper section of the ventricular septum, near the aortic and tricuspid valves. This type of VSD doesn't usually close spontaneously so surgery is often needed.

  • Muscular VSD. This is an opening in the muscular portion of the lower section of the ventricular septum. Many of these muscular VSDs close spontaneously and do not require surgery.

  • Atrioventricular canal type VSD. This VSD is associated with atrioventricular canal defect. The VSD is located next to the tricuspid and mitral valves. It requires surgical repair.

  • Conal septal VSD. The rarest type of VSD located in the ventricular septum just below the pulmonary valve.

Ventricular septal defects are the most commonly occurring type of congenital heart defect, accounting for about half of congenital heart disease cases.

What causes ventricular septal defect?

The heart forms during the first 8 weeks of fetal development. It begins as a hollow tube, then partitions within the tube to develop the septa (or walls) dividing the right side of the heart from the left. Ventricular septal defects occur when the partitioning process does not occur completely, leaving an opening in the ventricular septum.

Some congenital heart defects may have a genetic link causing heart problems to occur more often in certain families. Most ventricular septal defects occur by chance, with no clear reason for their development.

Why is ventricular septal defect a concern?

If not treated, this heart defect can cause lung disease. When blood passes through the VSD from the left ventricle to the right ventricle, a larger volume of blood than normal must be handled by the right side of the heart. Extra blood then passes through the pulmonary artery into the lungs, causing higher pressure than normal in the blood vessels in the lungs. The larger the opening, the more blood that flow to the lungs, and the higher the pressure.

The lungs are able to cope with this extra pressure for while, depending on exactly how high the pressure is. Eventually, however, the blood vessels in the lungs can become diseased by the extra pressure.

As pressure builds up in the lungs, the flow of blood from the left ventricle, through the VSD, into the right ventricle, and on to the lungs will diminish. This helps preserve the function of the lungs, but causes yet another problem. Blood flow within the heart goes from areas where the pressure is high to areas where the pressure is low. If a ventricular septal defect is not repaired, and lung disease begins to occur, pressure in the right side of the heart will eventually exceed pressure in the left. In this instance, it will be easier for oxygen-poor (blue) blood to flow from the right ventricle, through the VSD, into the left ventricle, and on to the body. When this happens, the body does not receive enough oxygen in the bloodstream to meet its needs.

Some ventricular septal defects occur with other heart defects (such as in transposition of the great arteries, tetrology of Fallot, or truncus arteriosus).

What are the symptoms of a ventricular septal defect?

The size of the opening in the ventricular septum will affect the type and severity of symptoms, and the age at which they first occur. A VSD permits extra blood to pass from the left ventricle through to the right side of the heart, and the right ventricle and lungs become overworked as a result. The larger the opening, the greater the amount of blood that can pass through and overload the right ventricle and lungs.

Symptoms often occur in infancy. The following are the most common symptoms of VSD. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

  • Fatigue

  • Sweating

  • Rapid breathing

  • Heavy breathing

  • Congested breathing

  • Disinterest in feeding, or tiring while feeding

  • Poor weight gain

The symptoms of VSD may look like other medical conditions or heart problems. Always consult your child's doctor for a diagnosis.

How is a ventricular septal defect diagnosed?

Your child's doctor may have heard a heart murmur during a physical exam. If so, you may have been referred to a pediatric cardiologist for a diagnosis. A heart murmur is simply a noise caused by the turbulence of blood flowing through the opening from the left side of the heart to the right.

A pediatric cardiologist specializes in the diagnosis and medical management of congenital heart defects, as well as heart problems that may develop later in childhood. The cardiologist will do a physical exam, listen to the heart and lungs, and make other observations that help in the diagnosis. The location within the chest where the murmur is heard best, as well as the loudness and quality of the murmur (such as, harsh or blowing) will give the cardiologist an initial idea of which heart problem your child may have. Other tests may include :

  • Chest X-ray. A diagnostic test that uses X-ray beams to make images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film. With a VSD, the heart may be enlarged because the left ventricle receives more blood than usual. Also, there may be changes in the lungs due to extra blood flow that can be seen on an X-ray.

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG). A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmias), and detects heart muscle stress.

  • Echocardiogram (echo). A procedure that evaluates the structure and function of the heart by using sound waves recorded on an electronic sensor that produce a moving picture of the heart and heart valves. An echo can show the pattern of blood flow through the septal opening, and determine how large the opening is, as well as help estimate how much blood is passing through it.

  • Cardiac catheterization. A cardiac catheterization is an invasive procedure that gives very detailed information about the structures inside the heart. Under sedation, a small, thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin, and guided to the inside of the heart. Blood pressure and oxygen measurements are taken in the four chambers of the heart, as well as the pulmonary artery and aorta. Contrast dye is also injected to more clearly visualize the structures inside the heart.

Treatment for ventricular septal defect

Specific treatment for VSD will be determined by your child's doctor based on:

  • Your child's age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the disease

  • Your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the disease

  • Your opinion or preference

Small ventricular septal defects may close spontaneously as your child grows. A larger VSD usually requires surgical repair. Once a ventricular septal defect is diagnosed, your child's cardiologist will evaluate your child periodically to see whether it is closing on its own. A VSD will be repaired if it has not closed on its own to prevent lung problems that will develop from long-time exposure to extra blood flow.

Treatment may include:

  • Medical management. Some children have no symptoms, and require no medication. However, some children may need to take medications to help the heart work better, since the right side may be under strain from the extra blood passing through the VSD. Medications that may be prescribed include the following:

    • Digoxin. A medication that helps strengthen the heart muscle so it can pump more efficiently.

    • Diuretics. The body's water balance can be affected when the heart is not working as well as it could. These medications help the kidneys remove excess fluid from the body.

    • ACE inhibitors. Medications that lower the blood pressure in the body, making it easier for the blood to be pumped from the left ventricle into the body (because of its lowered blood pressure) rather than across the VSD into the right ventricle and into the lungs.

  • Adequate nutrition. Infants with a larger VSD may become tired when feeding, and may not be able to eat enough to gain weight. Options that can be used to ensure your baby will have adequate nutrition include the following:

    • High-calorie formula or breast milk. Special nutritional supplements may be added to formula or pumped breast milk to increase the number of calories in each ounce, thereby allowing your baby to drink less and still consume enough calories to grow properly.

    • Supplemental tube feedings. Feedings given through a small, flexible tube that passes through the nose, down the esophagus, and into the stomach, can either supplement or take the place of bottle feedings. Infants who can drink part of their bottle, but not all, may be fed the remainder through the feeding tube. Infants who are too tired to bottle feed may receive their formula or breast milk through the feeding tube alone.

  • Surgical repair. The goal is to repair the septal opening before the lungs become diseased from too much blood flow and pressure and to restore normal weight gain in infants with difficulty feeding. Your child's cardiologist will recommend when the repair should be done based on echocardiogram and possibly cardiac catheterization results.

    The operation is done under general anesthesia. Depending on the size of the heart defect and your doctor's recommendations, the ventricular septal defect will be closed with stitches or a special patch. Consult your child's cardiologist for more information.

  • Interventional cardiac catheterization. In certain circumstances, your child's VSD may be repaired by a cardiac catheterization procedure. One method currently being used to close some small muscular VSDs is the use of a device called a septal occluder. During this procedure, the child is sedated and a small, thin flexible tube is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin and guided into the heart. Once the catheter is in the heart, the cardiologist will pass the septal occluder across the VSD. The septal occluder closes the ventricular septal defect providing a permanent seal.

Care in the hospital after VSD repair

In most cases, children will spend time in the intensive care unit (ICU) after a VSD repair. During the first several hours after surgery, your child will most likely be drowsy from the anesthesia that was used during the operation, and from medications given to relax him or her and to help with pain. As time goes by, your child will become more alert.

While your child is in the ICU, special equipment will be used to help him or her recover, and may include the following:

  • Ventilator. A machine that helps your child breathe while he or she is under anesthesia during the operation. A small, plastic tube is guided into the windpipe and attached to the ventilator, which breathes for your child while he or she is too sleepy to breathe effectively on his or her own. Many children have the ventilator tube removed right after surgery, but some other children will benefit from remaining on the ventilator for a few hours afterwards so they can rest.

  • Intravenous (IV) catheters. Small, plastic tubes inserted through the skin into blood vessels to provide IV fluids and important medications that help your child recover from the operation.

  • Arterial line. A specialized IV placed in the wrist, or other area of the body where a pulse can be felt, that measures blood pressure continuously during surgery and while your child is in the ICU.

  • Nasogastric (NG) tube. A small, flexible tube that keeps the stomach drained of acid and gas bubbles that may build up during surgery.

  • Urinary catheter. A small, flexible tube that allows urine to drain out of the bladder and accurately measures how much urine the body makes, which helps determine how well the heart is functioning. After surgery, the heart will be a little weaker than it was before, and, therefore, the body may start to hold onto fluid, causing swelling and puffiness. Diuretics may be given to help the kidneys remove excess fluids from the body.

  • Chest tube. A drainage tube may be inserted to keep the chest free of blood that would otherwise accumulate after the incision is closed. Bleeding may occur for several hours, or even a few days after surgery.

  • Heart monitor. A machine that constantly displays a picture of your child's heart rhythm, and monitors heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and other values.

Your child may need other equipment not mentioned here to provide support while in the ICU, or afterwards. The hospital staff will explain all of the necessary equipment to you.

Your child will be kept as comfortable as possible with several different medications; some of which relieve pain, and some of which relieve anxiety. The staff may also ask for your input as to how best to soothe and comfort your child.

After discharge from the ICU, your child will recuperate on another hospital unit for a few days before going home. You will learn how to care for your child at home before your child is discharged. Your child may need to take medications for a while, and these will be explained to you. The staff will give you written instructions regarding medications, activity limitations, and follow-up appointments before your child is discharged.

Care for your child at home after VSD repair

Most infants and older children feel fairly comfortable when they go home. Pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, may be recommended to keep your child comfortable. Your child's doctor will discuss pain control before your child is discharged from the hospital.

Often, infants who fed poorly prior to surgery have more energy after the recuperation period, and begin to eat better and gain weight faster.

After surgery, older children usually have a fair tolerance for activity. For a short period, your child may become tired quicker than before surgery, but usually will be allowed to play with supervision, while avoiding blows to the chest that might cause injury to the incision or breastbone. Within a few weeks, your child should be fully recovered and able to participate in normal activity.

You may receive additional instructions from your child's doctors and the hospital staff.

Long-term outlook after VSD repair

Most children who have had a ventricular septal defect repair will live normal, healthy lives. Activity levels, appetite, and growth will return to normal in most children. Your child's cardiologist may recommend that antibiotics be given to prevent bacterial endocarditis for a specific time period after discharge from the hospital.

Outcomes also depend on the type of VSD, as well as how early in life the VSD was diagnosed and whether or not it was repaired. With early diagnosis and repair of a VSD, the outcome is generally excellent, and minimal follow-up is necessary. When a VSD is diagnosed later in life, if complications occur after surgical closure, or the VSD is never repaired, the outlook may be poor. There is a risk for developing irreversible pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs) or Eisenmenger’s syndrome. These individuals should receive follow-up care at a center that specializes in congenital heart disease.

Consult your child's doctor regarding the specific outlook for your child.

Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)

What is an atrial septal defect?

An atrial septal defect is an opening in the atrial septum. The atrial septum is the dividing wall between the two upper chambers of the heart (right and left atria). SD can be a congenital (present at birth) heart defect, or it can result from the failure of normal postnatal closure of a hole that is present in the heart of every fetus.  

Normally, oxygen-poor (blue) blood returns to the right atrium from the body, travels to the right ventricle, then is pumped into the lungs where it receives oxygen. Oxygen-rich (red) blood returns to the left atrium from the lungs, passes into the left ventricle, and then is pumped out to the body through the aorta.

An atrial septal defect allows oxygen-rich (red) blood to pass from the left atrium, through the opening in the septum, and then mix with oxygen-poor (blue) blood in the right atrium.

Atrial septal defects occur in a small percentage of children born with congenital heart disease. For unknown reasons, girls have atrial septal defects twice as often as boys.

What causes an atrial septal defect?

The heart is forming during the first 8 weeks of fetal development. It begins as a hollow tube, then partitions within the tube develop that eventually become the septa (or walls) dividing the right side of the heart from the left. Atrial septal defects usually occur when the partitioning process does not occur completely, leaving an opening in the atrial septum.

Some congenital heart defects may have a genetic link occurring due to a defect in a gene causing heart problems to occur more often in certain families. Most atrial septal defects occur by chance, with no clear reason for their development.

What are the types of atrial septal defects?

There are four major types of atrial septal defects:

  • Ostium secundum atrial septal defect. This is the most common atrial septal defect, affecting over two-thirds of people with atrial septal defects. It is caused when a part of the atrial septum fails to close completely while the heart is developing. This causes an opening to develop in the center of the wall separating the two atria.

  • Ostium primum atrial septal defect. This defect is part of atrioventricular canal defects, and is associated with a split (cleft) in one of the leaflets of the mitral valve.

  • Sinus venosus atrial septal defect. This defect occurs at the superior vena cava and right atrium junction, in the area where the right pulmonary veins enter the heart. As a result, the drainage of one or more of the pulmonary veins may be abnormal in that the pulmonary veins drain to the right atrium, rather than the left atrium. 

  • Coronary sinus atrial septal defect. This defect is located within the wall of the coronary sinus, where it passes behind the left atrium. The coronary sinus carries the blood flow from the heart's own vein, into the right atrium. It is the rarest of all atrial septal defects.

Why is an atrial septal defect a concern?

This heart defect can over time cause lung problems if not repaired. When blood passes through the ASD from the left atrium to the right atrium, a larger volume of blood than normal must be handled by the right side of the heart. This extra blood passes through the pulmonary artery into the lungs, causing higher amounts of blood flow than normal in the vessels in the lungs.

A small opening in the atrial septum allows a small amount of blood to pass through from the left atrium to the right atrium. A large opening allows more blood to pass through and mix with the normal blood flow in the right heart.

The lungs are able to cope with this extra blood flow for a long period of time. In some patients, the extra blood flow eventually raises the blood pressure in the lungs, usually after several decades. This then hardens the blood vessels in the lungs, causing them to be diseased, resulting in irreversible changes in the lungs.

What are the symptoms of an atrial septal defect?

Many children have no symptoms and seem healthy. However, if the ASD is large, permitting a large amount of blood to pass through to the right side of the heart, the right atrium, right ventricle, and lungs will become overworked, and symptoms may be noted. Many children with ASD will have no symptoms. Some children, however, may have the following:

  • Child tires easily when playing

  • Fatigue

  • Rapid breathing

  • Shortness of breath

  • Poor growth

  • Frequent respiratory infections

The symptoms of an atrial septal defect may resemble other medical conditions or heart problems. Always consult your child's physician for a diagnosis.

How is an atrial septal defect diagnosed?

Your child's doctor may have heard a heart murmur during a physical exam, and referred your child to a pediatric cardiologist for a diagnosis. In this case, the heart murmur is caused by the extra blood from the ASD flowing through the pulmonary valve.

A pediatric cardiologist specializes in the diagnosis and medical management of congenital heart defects, as well as heart problems that may develop later in childhood. The cardiologist will do a physical exam, listen to the heart and lungs, and make other observations that help in the diagnosis. The location within the chest that the murmur is heard best, as well as the loudness and quality of the murmur (harsh, blowing, etc.) will give the cardiologist an initial idea of which heart problem your child may have. Diagnostic testing for congenital heart disease varies by the child's age, clinical condition, and institutional preferences. Some tests that may be recommended include the following:

  • Chest X-ray. A diagnostic test which uses invisible X-ray beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film. With an ASD, the heart may be enlarged because the right atrium and ventricle have to handle larger amounts of blood flow than normal. Also, there may be changes that take place in the lungs due to extra blood flow that can be seen on an X-ray.

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG). A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmias or dysrhythmias), and detects heart muscle stress.

  • Echocardiogram (echo). A procedure that evaluates the structure and function of the heart by using sound waves recorded on an electronic sensor that produce a moving picture of the heart and heart valves. An echo can show the pattern of blood flow through the atrial septal opening, and determine how large the opening is, as well as how much blood is passing through it.

  • Cardiac catheterization. A cardiac catheterization is an invasive procedure that gives very detailed information about the structures inside the heart. Under sedation, a small, thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin, and guided to the inside of the heart. Blood pressure and oxygen measurements are taken in the four chambers of the heart, as well as the pulmonary artery and aorta. Contrast dye is also injected to more clearly visualize the structures inside the heart. Although an echocardiogram often provides enough diagnostic information, in certain circumstances, device closure of the ASD can be done at the time of the catheterization.

Treatment for atrial septal defect

Specific treatment for ASD will be determined by your child's physician based on:

  • Your child's age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the disease

  • Your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the disease

  • Your opinion or preference

Secundum atrial septal defects may close spontaneously as a child grows. Once an atrial septal defect is diagnosed, your child's cardiologist will evaluate your child periodically to see whether it is closing on its own. Usually, an ASD will be repaired if it has not closed on its own by the time your child starts school. This is to prevent lung problems that will develop from long-time exposure to extra blood flow. The decision to close the ASD may also depend on the size of the defect. Atrial septal defects are typically repaired in childhood to prevent problems later in life.

Treatment may include:

  • Medical management. Many children have no symptoms, and require no medications. However, in rare circumstances, children may need to take medications to help their heart work better, since the right side is under strain from the extra blood passing through the ASD. Medications may be prescribed, such as diuretics. Diuretics help the kidneys remove excess fluid from the body. This may be necessary because the body's water balance can be affected when the heart is not working as well as it could.

  • Surgical repair. Your child's ASD may be repaired surgically in the operating room. The surgical repair is done under general anesthesia. The defect may be closed with stitches or a special patch.

  • Device closure. Device closure is frequently done for secundum ASD, depending on the size of the defect and the weight of the child. During the cardiac catheterization procedure, the child is sedated and a small, thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin and guided to the inside of the heart. Once the catheter is in the heart, the cardiologist will pass a special device, called a septal occluder, into the open ASD, preventing blood from flowing through it.

After surgical repair

In most cases, children will spend time in the intensive care unit (ICU) for several hours, or overnight, after an ASD repair. During the first several hours after surgery, your child will most likely be drowsy from the anesthesia that was used during the operation, and from medications given to relax him or her and to help with pain. As time goes by, your child will become more alert.
While your child is in the ICU, special equipment will be used to help him or her recover, and may include the following:

  • Ventilator. A machine that helps your child breathe while he or she is under anesthesia during the operation. A small, plastic tube is guided into the windpipe and attached to the ventilator, which breathes for your child while he or she is too sleepy to breathe effectively on his or her own. Many children have the ventilator tube removed right after surgery, but some other children will benefit from remaining on the ventilator for a few hours afterwards, or overnight, so they can rest.

  • Intravenous (IV) catheters. Small, plastic tubes inserted through the skin into blood vessels to provide IV fluids and important medications that help your child recover from the operation.

  • Arterial line. A specialized IV placed in the wrist, or other area of the body where a pulse can be felt, that measures blood pressure continuously during surgery and while your child is in the ICU.

  • Nasogastric (NG) tube. A small, flexible tube that keeps the stomach drained of acid and gas bubbles that may build up during surgery.

  • Urinary catheter. A small, flexible tube that allows urine to drain out of the bladder and accurately measures how much urine the body makes, which helps determine how well the heart is functioning. After surgery, the heart will be a little weaker than it was before; the body may start to hold onto fluid, causing swelling and puffiness. Diuretics may be given to help the kidneys remove excess fluids from the body.

  • Chest tube. A drainage tube may be inserted to keep the chest free of blood that would otherwise accumulate after the incision is closed. Bleeding may occur for several hours, or even a few days after surgery.

  • Heart monitor. A machine that constantly displays a picture of your child's heart rhythm, and monitors heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and other values.

Your child may need other equipment, not mentioned here, to provide support while in the ICU, or afterwards. The hospital staff will explain all of the necessary equipment to you.

Your child will be kept as comfortable as possible with several different medications; some of which relieve pain and some of which relieve anxiety. The staff may also ask for your input as to how best to soothe and comfort your child.

After discharge from the ICU, your child will recuperate on another hospital unit for a few days before going home. You will learn how to care for your child at home before your child is discharged. Your child may need to take medications for a while and these will be explained to you. The staff will provide instructions regarding medications, activity limitations, and follow-up appointments before your child is discharged.

Care for your child at home following ASD repair

Most children feel comfortable when they go home, and have a fair tolerance for activity. Your child may become tired quicker than before the repair, but usually will be allowed to play with supervision, while avoiding blows to the chest that might cause injury to the incision or breastbone. Within a few weeks, your child should be fully recovered and able to participate in normal activity.

Pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, may be recommended to keep your child comfortable at home. Your child's doctor will discuss pain control before your child is discharged from the hospital.

Long-term outlook after ASD repair

The majority of children who have had an atrial septal defect repair will live healthy lives. Your child's cardiologist may recommend that your child take antibiotics to prevent bacterial endocarditis for a specific time period after discharge from the hospital.

Outcomes also depend on the type of ASD, as well as how early in life the ASD was diagnosed and whether or not it was repaired. With early diagnosis and repair of an ASD, the outcome is generally excellent, and minimal follow-up is necessary. When an ASD is diagnosed later in life, if complications occur after surgical closure, or the ASD is never repaired, the outlook may be worse than normal. There is a risk of developing pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs) or Eisenmenger's syndrome. These people should receive follow-up care at a center that specializes in congenital heart disease.

Consult your child's doctor regarding the specific outlook for your child.

Providers

David A. Bull, M.D.

David Bull, MD, is a member of the Thoracic Oncology Program, a joint effort between Huntsman Cancer Institute and the University of Utah Hospitals and Clinics. The program was developed to offer consultation, diagnosis, and treatment for all chest cancers. Bull is a professor in the Department of Surgery, Divis... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiac Mechanical Support, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Coronary Revascularization, Esophageal Surgery, Heart Transplant, Lung Cancer, Lung Transplant, Valvular Heart Disease

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 581-5311

Phillip T. Burch, M.D.

Dr. Burch performs repairs for a wide variety of congenital cardaic anomalies. In additon to clinical responsibilities, Dr. Burch has research interests in single ventricle physiology as well as in derangements in normal neonatal metabolism caused by cardiac surgery.... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery, Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery

Locations:

Primary Children's Hospital (801) 662-5577

Aaron W. Eckhauser, M.D., M.S.C.I

I joined the University of Utah, Division of Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery in 2012. I am board certified by the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Thoracic Surgery. My clinical interests are focused on caring for all patients, from neonates to adults, with congenital heart defects. I have ... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiac Mechanical Support, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Heart Transplant, Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery

Locations:

A location has not yet been added by this physician.

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery

Locations:

A location has not yet been added by this physician.

Ganesh S. Kumpati, M.D.

Dr Kumpati performs adult cardiac surgery, thoracic surgery, and vascular surgery. Dr Kumpati has significant experience in both surgical and endovascular management of aortic disease, including endovascular aneurysm repair. Prior to joining the University of Utah in August 2011, Dr Kumpati was in private prac... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 581-5311
Veterans Administration Medical Center (801) 582-1565

Stephen McKellar, M.D., M.Sc.

Dr. McKellar is a native of Salt Lake City and received his Bachelor of Arts from the University of Utah and his Doctor of Medicine from the George Washington University School of Medicine. He completed his General Surgical and Cardiothoracic Surgical training at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota in a com... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiac Mechanical Support, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Coronary Revascularization, Heart Failure, Heart Transplant, Lung Transplant, Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery, Minimally Invasive Lung & Esophageal Surgery, Valvular Heart Disease

Locations:

A location has not yet been added by this physician.

Amit N. Patel, M.D., B.S., M.S.

Amit Patel, MD, MS, is an associate professor in the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery at the University of Utah School of Medicine and Director of Clinical Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering at the University of Utah. His clinical interests include heart surgery for coronary disease, valve repair and... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery, Heart Failure, Heart Stem Cell Therapy, Heart Transplant, Lung Transplant, Valvular Heart Disease

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 587-7946

Craig H. Selzman, M.D.

Dr. Craig Selzman is an Associate Professor of Surgery in the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery at the University of Utah who specializes in the care of patients requiring heart surgery. He earned his undergraduate degree at Amherst College and medical degree at Baylor College of Medicine. He received his Gener... Read More

Specialties:

Adult Congenital Heart Disease, Cardiac Mechanical Support, Cardiothoracic Surgery, Coronary Revascularization, Heart Failure, Heart Stem Cell Therapy, Heart Transplant, Lung Transplant, Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery, Surgical Ventricular Restoration, Valvular Heart Disease

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 587-9348

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery, Nurse Practitioner

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 581-0434

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery, Physician Assistant

Locations:

A location has not yet been added by this physician.

Terri M. Hancock, DNP, ACNP-BC

Terri Hancock, DNP, ACNP-BC, is a board certified Acute Care Nurse Practitioner with the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery at the University of Utah. As a Cardiothoracic Surgery Nurse Practitioner, Terri is interested in evaluating and improving the overall quality of care and clinical efficiency of cardiac and... Read More

Specialties:

Acute Care Nurse Practitioner, Cardiothoracic Surgery

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 581-5311

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery, Physician Assistant

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 231-2200

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery

Locations:

A location has not yet been added by this physician.

Nathan C. Sontum, PA-C, M.H.S.

PA-C for department of CT surgery 2010-Present... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery

Locations:

A location has not yet been added by this physician.

Scott A. Tatum, PA-C

Scott came to the University over 6 years ago from private practice. As a trainer and consultant for Endoscopic Vein harvesting, he has effectively introduced and incorporated new technology and procedures into the University healthcare system. As the senior physician assistant in the division of cardiothoraci... Read More

Specialties:

Cardiothoracic Surgery, Physician Assistant

Locations:

University Hospital (801) 581-2121

Locations

University Campus
University Hospital
50 N Medical Drive
Salt Lake City, UT 84132
Map
(801) 581-2121
Primary Children's Hospital
100 N Mario Capecchi Dr
Salt Lake City, UT 84132
(801) 662-1000
Veterans Administration Medical Center
500 Foothill Drive
Salt Lake City, UT 84148
(801) 582-1565