Ovarian Cancer Risk Assessment
According to 2012 statistics from the American Cancer Society, ovarian cancer is the ninth most common cancer in U.S. women. (This does not count certain skin cancers.) Ovarian cancer is most common in older women. It is a little more common in white women than in women of other ethnic groups. The risk of getting invasive ovarian cancer during a woman's lifetime is about 1 in 71, and the risk of dying from it is 1 in 95. This tool will help you determine if you are at risk for ovarian cancer. It is not a complete assessment of all risks. For a complete evaluation of your risks, see your health care provider.
About Your results
Your assessment indicates you have one or more significant risk factors for ovarian cancer, making your overall risk of developing ovarian cancer high.
Your assessment indicates you have one or more moderate risk factors for ovarian cancer, making your overall risk of developing ovarian cancer moderate.
Your assessment indicates you have no significant or moderate risk factors for ovarian cancer, making your overall risk of developing ovarian cancer average for the general public.
Your risk factors and their significance, according to this assessment, are listed below.
Risk factors of high significance
- Family history of ovarian cancer
- More than one blood relative with ovarian cancer
Risk factors of moderate significance
- Personal history of uterine cancer
- Personal history of colon or rectum cancer
- Personal history of breast cancer
- Personal history of infertility
- Family history of uterine cancer
- Family history of colon or rectum cancer
- Family history of breast cancer
- Use of a fertility medication
- Hormone use
- Never having a child
- First child born after age 30
About risk factors
Most women with ovarian cancer do not have known risk factors. Still, it is important to know about the medically recognized risk factors. According to the American Cancer Society, several specific factors have been discovered that increase a woman's likelihood of developing one type of ovarian cancer called epithelial ovarian cancer. These risk factors do not apply to other, less common types of ovarian cancer, such as germ cell tumors and stromal tumors. If this assessment shows you have risk factors, you should discuss them with your health care provider. The risk of developing ovarian cancer increases with age. This cancer generally develops after menopause. Although most cases of ovarian cancer are diagnosed in older women, the disease can still occur in younger women.
Early cancers of the ovaries tend to cause symptoms that are relatively vague. They can be caused by many conditions that are not cancer. These symptoms include:
- General abdominal discomfort and/or pain (gas, indigestion, pressure, swelling, bloating, cramps)
- Nausea, diarrhea, constipation, or frequent urination
- Feeling of fullness even after a light meal
- Shortness of breath
- Feeling tired all the time
- Abnormal bleeding from the vagina
If you have these symptoms and you have risk factors for ovarian cancer, see your health care provider for a complete evaluation. If your risk is high, your provider may suggest more frequent evaluations. That way, if cancer develops, it can be detected and treated as early as possible. Some exams and tests that your health care provider might do are:
- Pelvic exam. This exam is done to feel the uterus, vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder, and rectum to find any abnormality in their shape or size. (A Pap test is used to find cancer of the cervix. It is often done along with the pelvic exam, but it is not a reliable way to find or diagnose ovarian cancer.)
- Transvaginal ultrasound. This test uses sound waves to create a picture of the uterus and ovaries to try to determine whether a growth is likely to be a cancer or a fluid-filled cyst.
- CA-125. Blood tests for ovarian cancer may include measuring the amount of CA-125. This is a protein that may be higher in many women with ovarian cancer. (This test is not always accurate because some other diseases can increase the blood levels of CA-125, producing a false positive. Some ovarian cancers may not produce enough CA-125, producing a false negative.)
- Genetic testing. If you have close family members who have had breast or ovarian cancer, your provider may talk to you about genetic testing. This will tell you if you have a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. Mutations in these genes have been linked to increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer.
This information is not intended as a substitute for professional health care. Always consult with a health care provider for advice concerning your health. Only your health care provider can determine if you have ovarian cancer.