Evaluation Procedures for Orthopedic Problems
To help the orthopedist determine your treatment, you'll need a physical exam, a medical history profile, and a description of symptoms.
Arthrography is a type of imaging test used to look at a joint, such as the shoulder, knee, or hip. It may be done if standard X-rays do not show the needed details of the joint structure and function.
A bone biopsy is a procedure performed to remove tissue or cells from the outer layers of bone for examination under a microscope.
Bone Density Test
A bone density test is used to measure the bone mineral content and density. It may be done using X-rays, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA or DXA), or a special CT scan that uses computer software to determine bone density of the hip or spine.
Bone Marrow Biopsy
In the center of most large bones there is a soft tissue called bone marrow. Bone marrow makes most of the body's blood cells. A bone marrow biopsy involves removing tissue from the red bone marrow. The tissue is sent to the lab for microscopic exam. The biopsy is done using a small needle inserted into the bone.
A bone scan is a radiology procedure used to look at the skeleton. It is done to find areas of physical and chemical changes in bone. A bone scan may also be used to see if treatment of certain conditions is working.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Bones
Computed tomography is an imaging procedure that uses X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. It’s also called CT or CAT scan. A CT scan can provide detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs.
Fluoroscopy is a study of moving body structures. It’s much like an X-ray "movie" and is often done while a contrast dye moves through the part of the body being examined. Fluoroscopy, as an imaging tool, allows doctors to look at many body systems, including the skeletal, digestive, urinary, respiratory, and reproductive systems.
Joint aspiration is a procedure to remove fluid from the space around a joint using a needle and syringe. It may be done to relieve swelling or to obtain fluid for analysis to diagnose a joint disorder and/or problem.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Bones, Joints, and Soft Tissues
Magnetic resonance imaging uses a combination of a large magnet, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of structures within the body.
A muscle biopsy involves removing a small piece of tissue to diagnose disease. The tissue is usually removed using a needle.
X-rays of the Extremities
X-rays use invisible electromagnetic energy beams to make images of internal tissues, bones, and organs. Standard X-rays are done for many reasons, including diagnosing tumors or bone injuries.
X-rays of the Spine, Neck, or Back
This procedure may be used to diagnose back or neck pain, fractures or broken bones, arthritis, degeneration of the disks, tumors, or other problems.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Spine and Brain
MRI may be used to examine the brain and/or spinal cord for injuries or the presence of structural abnormalities or certain other conditions, including tumors or aneurysms.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Spine
Computed tomography is an imaging test that uses X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. It’s also called CT or CAT scan. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs.
A myelogram is a diagnostic imaging test done by a radiologist. It uses a contrast dye and X-rays or computed tomography (CT) to look for problems in the spinal canal. Problems can develop in the spinal cord, nerve roots, and other tissues. This test is also called myelography.