Health Information

Endocrinology

  • Acromegaly

    When the pituitary gland makes too much growth hormone, abnormal growth occurs. This is called acromegaly. The name comes from the Greek word for “extremities” and “enlargement.” The abnormal growth starts in the hands and feet, as soft tissue begins to swell. This rare disease affects mostly middle-aged adults. It can lead to severe illness and even death if not treated.

  • Adrenal Insufficiency/Addison's Disease

    Adrenal insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands don’t make enough of the hormone cortisol. The adrenal glands are found just above each kidney. They work with the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain. Cortisol helps break down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in your body. It also affects how your immune system works.

  • Disorders of the Adrenal Glands

    Detailed information on disorders of the adrenal glands

  • Adrenal Glands

    Detailed information on the adrenal gland, its anatomy and function

  • Pheochromocytoma: An Adrenal Gland Tumor

    A pheochromocytoma is a rare type of tumor. It grows in the middle of an adrenal gland. Your body has 2 adrenal glands. They are found on top of each kidney. Each layer of these glands makes different hormones. The middle part of the adrenal glands makes epinephrine and norepinephrine. These hormones help keep your heart rate and blood pressure normal. A pheochromocytoma causes the adrenal glands to make too much of these hormones.

  • Anatomy of the Endocrine System

    The endocrine system includes not only the pancreas—the organ involved in the development of diabetes—but also the pituitary, thyroid, and other glands.

  • Hormones and the Endocrine System

    Detailed information on hormones and their role in the workings of the endocrine system

  • Overactive Adrenal Glands

    Your adrenal glands are found just above each kidney. They make certain types of hormones. If they make too much of these hormones, they are called overactive.

  • Diabetes Insipidus

    Diabetes insipidus occurs when your body doesn’t make enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or kidneys don’t respond to it. ADH helps keep the right amount of water in the body.

  • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Thyroiditis is when your thyroid gland becomes irritated. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common type of this health problem. It is an autoimmune disease. It occurs when your body makes antibodies that attack the cells in your thyroid. The thyroid then can’t make enough of the thyroid hormone.

  • Hyperparathyroidism

    Hyperparathyroidism occurs when 1 or more of your parathyroid glands are overactive. You have 4 of these tiny glands. Each one is about the size of a grain of rice. They are found in your neck, next to the thyroid gland. They keep the amount of calcium in your blood in a normal range. If these glands are overactive, they make too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). That raises the level of calcium in your blood.

  • Hyperthyroidism

    Hyperthyroidism means your thyroid gland is too active. This tiny gland is found in your neck. An overactive thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone. This makes your metabolism work at a faster rate.

  • Hypoparathyroidism

    Hypoparathyroidism occurs when 1 or more of your parathyroid glands are underactive. You have 4 of these tiny glands. Each one is about the size of a grain of rice. They are found in your neck, next to the thyroid gland. They keep the amount of calcium in your blood in a normal range. They also keep the levels of magnesium and phosphorus normal. If these glands are underactive, they do not make enough parathyroid hormone (PTH).

  • Hypopituitarism

    Hypopituitarism happens when your pituitary gland is not active enough. The front lobe of the gland may only partly work. Or it may not work at all. As a result the gland does not make enough hormones.

  • Hypothyroidism

    Hypothyroidism is the most common type of thyroid disorder. It means your thyroid gland is not active enough. This tiny gland is found in your neck. If the gland is underactive, it may not make enough thyroid hormone.

  • Home Page - Endocrinology

    Detailed information on endocrine disorders

  • Online Resources - Endocrinology

    List of online resources to find additional information on endocrine disorders

  • Pancreatic Cancer: Introduction

    Learn the basics of pancreatic cancer, including the types of cancer in the pancreas.

  • Pancreas

    Detailed anatomical description of human pancreas, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations

  • Disorders of the Pancreas

    Detailed information on pancreas disorders, including pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

  • Parathyroid Glands

    Detailed information on parathyroid glands, including anatomy and function

  • Disorders of the Parathyroid Glands

    Detailed information on disorders of the parathyroid gland

  • Parathyroid Tumor

    Detailed information on parathyroid tumors, including symptoms and treatment

  • Pituitary Gland

    Detailed information on the anatomy and function of the pituitary gland

  • Disorders of the Pituitary Gland

    Detailed information on pituitary gland disorders, including acromegaly, diabetes insipidus, empty sella syndrome, hypopituitarism, and pituitary gland tumors

  • Pituitary Tumors

    The pituitary glandmakes hormones that affect many other glands in the body. Most pituitary tumors are not cancerous. But, because of its location, it can press on the optic nerves and cause vision problems.

  • Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Postpartum thyroiditis happens when a woman’s thyroid becomes inflamed after having a baby. It may first cause your thyroid to be overactive. But in time it leads to an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). A small portion of pregnant women get this health problem.

  • Hypothyroidism and Pregnancy

    Signs of an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) may be masked by pregnancy. But the thyroid is important for your baby’s brain development. Learn if you should be screened for hypothyroidism.

  • Reproductive Glands

    Detailed information on the anatomy and function of the reproductive glands

  • Empty Sella Syndrome

    Empty sella syndrome (ESS) may occur if you have an enlarged sella turcica. This is a bony structure where the pituitary gland sits at the base of the brain.

  • Topic Index - Endocrinology

    Detailed information on endocrine disorders

  • Endocrinology Statistics

    Statistics relating to endocrine disorders

  • Thyroid Function Tests

    Detailed information on the most common types of thyroid function tests

  • Thyroid Gland

    Detailed information on the thyroid gland, including anatomy and function

  • Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Detailed information on thyroid hormone replacement therapy

  • Disorders of the Thyroid

    Detailed information on disorders of the thyroid, including hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, toxic nodular goiter, thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, thyroid tumor, hypothyroidism and pregnancy, postpartum thyroiditis, and thyroid horm

  • Thyroid Cancer: Targeted Therapy

    Detailed information on targeted therapy for thyroid tumors.

  • Type 1 Diabetes

    In type 1 diabetes, the body can’t make insulin. Insulin is needed to help glucose enter cells for energy. Without insulin, glucose builds up in the blood. This causes high blood glucose or high blood sugar.

  • Thyroid Disorders in Women

    Detailed information on thyroid disorders in women

  • Metabolic Syndrome

    Metabolic syndrome is a condition that includes the presence of a cluster of risk factors specific for cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome greatly raises the risk of developing diabetes, heart disease, stroke, or all three.

  • Hypoglycemia

    Hypoglycemia is low blood sugar (glucose). Hypoglycemia may be a condition by itself, or may be a complication of diabetes or another disorder.

  • Pancreatitis

    Pancreatitis is the redness and swelling (inflammation) of the pancreas. This happens when digestive juices or enzymes attack the pancreas.

  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    PCOS is a common hormone problem in women of childbearing age. Women with PCOS may not ovulate, and have abnormal hormone levels. They may experience missed or irregular periods, excess hair growth and weight gain around the belly.