Health Information

Diabetes and Other Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

  • Achondroplasia in Children

    Achondroplasia is a group of rare genetic (inherited) bone disorders. Achondroplasia is the most common type of what was once called dwarfism, in which the child's arms and legs are short in proportion to body length. 

  • Disorders of Sex Development

    Detailed information on ambiguous genitalia, including determining gender and treatment

  • Anatomy of the Endocrine System in Children

    Detailed information on the endocrine system, its anatomy and function, including a full-color, labeled illustration

  • Anterior Pituitary Disorders

    Detailed information on anterior pituitary disorders, including hypopituitarism

  • Disorders Affecting the Adrenal Glands

    Detailed information on disorders affecting the adrenal glands, including underactive adrenal glands (Addison's disease), overactive adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome), and pheochromocytoma

  • Disorders Affecting Calcium Metabolism

    Detailed information on disorders affecting calcium metabolism, including juvenile osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and DiGeorge syndrome

  • Disorders Affecting the Pituitary Gland

    Detailed information on disorders affecting the pituitary gland, including posterior anterior disorders and anterior pituitary disorders

  • Disorders Affecting the Thyroid

    Detailed information on disorders affecting the thyroid gland, including hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) and hypothyroidism

  • Diabetes Index

    Detailed information on diabetes, including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, teens and diabetes, and diet and diabetes

  • Delayed Puberty

    Puberty that happens late is called delayed puberty. This means a child's physical signs of sexual maturity don’t appear by age 13 in girls or age 14 in boys. This includes breast growth, pubic hair, and voice changes. These are known as secondary sexual characteristics.

  • Diabetes Insipidus in Children

    Diabetes insipidus is a condition caused by not enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body. ADH is also known as vasopressin. This is a hormone that helps the kidneys keep the correct amount of water in the body. The condition is also called “water diabetes.”

  • Overview of Diabetes Mellitus

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that involves the regulation of blood sugar and occurs in two different forms, type 1 and type 2.

  • Diet and Diabetes

    It is important to learn about proper meal-planning when your child has diabetes. The type and amount of food your child eats affects his/her blood sugar levels.

  • Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is when the pituitary gland doesn't make enough growth hormone. GH is needed to stimulate growth of bone and other tissues. This condition can occur at any age. GH deficiency does not affect a child's intelligence.

  • Gonadotropin-Independent Precocious Puberty

    Puberty that happens early is called precocious puberty. Gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty is caused by early secretion of high levels of sex hormones. These include the male androgens and female estrogens.

  • Graves Disease in a Newborn (Neonatal Graves Disease)

    Graves disease is an autoimmune disease. The immune system normally protects the body from germs with chemicals called antibodies. But with an autoimmune disease, it makes antibodies that attack the body’s own tissues. With Graves disease, antibodies cause the thyroid gland to make too much thyroid hormone. This is known as hyperthyroidism. Extra thyroid hormone in the bloodstream leads to the body's metabolism being too active.

  • Growth Problems in Children

    A growth problem means that a child falls either below or above the average range of growth for a child's age, sex, family history, or racial background.

  • Growth in Children

    Detailed information on growth in children, including normal growth, newborn screening tests, growth problems, growth hormone deficiency, and achondroplasia

  • Hyperparathyroidism in Children

    Hyperparathyroidism is when the parathyroid glands make too much parathyroid hormone. The condition is rare in children.

  • Hypoparathyroidism in Children

    Hypoparathyroidism is when the parathyroid glands don’t make enough parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid glands are 4 tiny glands on the thyroid. The hormone they make helps manage levels of calcium in the bloodstream. Low levels of the hormone leads to low levels of calcium. This can lead to muscle spasms and cramping, called tetany.

  • Hypoglycemia in Children

    Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and the body. The normal range of blood glucose is about 70 to 140 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). The amount blood differs based on the most recent meal. Babies and small children with type 1 diabetes will have different goal ranges of blood glucose levels. 

  • Hypoglycemia in a Newborn Baby

    Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and the body. In a newborn baby, low blood sugar can happen for many reasons. It can cause problems such as shakiness, blue tint to the skin, and breathing and feeding problems.

  • Hypopituitarism in Children

    Hypopituitarism means that the pituitary gland is not working normally. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain. It’s the master endocrine gland in the body. The pituitary gland normally releases as many as 8 different hormones. These hormones control growth, metabolism, blood pressure, and other body processes. The effects of hypopituitarism may be slow over time. Or they may be sudden.

  • Hypothyroidism in Children

    Hypothyroidism is the condition in which the thyroid is underactive—producing too little thyroid hormone.

  • Home Page - Diabetes and Other Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

    Detailed information on diabetes and other endocrine and metabolic disorders that affect children

  • Juvenile Osteoporosis

    Osteoporosis is a condition where the bones are thinner than normal. It’s a condition that gets worse over time. This means that bones get thinner over time, or don’t grow as they should. The bones are then weaker and at higher risk of breaking. The condition is much more common in older adults. But it can also occur during childhood. In children, it’s called juvenile osteoporosis.

  • Newborn Screening Tests
  • Overactive Adrenal Glands in Children

    Adrenal glands make a series of hormones. The hormones are androgens, corticosteroids, and aldosterone. Overactive adrenal glands make too much of one or more of these hormones. This can cause health problems. The health problems vary depending on which hormones are in excess. For example, too much aldosterone can caused high blood pressure and low levels of potassium.

  • Online Resources - Diabetes and Other Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

    List of online resources to find additional information on diabetes and other endocrine and metabolic disorders

  • Problems in Puberty

    Detailed information on problems in puberty, including precocious puberty, gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, and delayed puberty

  • Pheochromocytoma in Children

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal glands. The tumor makes hormones called epinephrine and norepinephrine. This leads to an excess of the hormones in the body. These hormones help manage heart rate and blood pressure, and they have other tasks. Too much of these hormones in the body causes problems.

  • Posterior Pituitary Disorders

    Detailed information on posterior pituitary disorders

  • Precocious Puberty

    Puberty that happens early is called precocious puberty. This means a child's physical signs of sexual maturity develop too soon. This includes breast growth, pubic hair, and voice changes. These are known as secondary sexual characteristics. Precocious puberty happens before age 8 in girls, and before age 9 in boys.

  • Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion in Children

    SIADH is when the body makes too much antidiuretic hormone (ADH). This is a hormone that normally helps the kidneys conserve the correct amount of water in the body. SIADH causes the body to retain water. This lowers the level of sodium in the blood. SIADH is rare. It most often happens to children who are in the hospital.

  • Topic Index - Diabetes and Other Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

    Detailed information on diabetes and other endocrine and metabolic disorders that affect children

  • Teens and Diabetes

    During adolescence, blood sugar levels become harder to control, resulting in levels that swing from too low to too high.

  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children

    Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. The body's immune system damages the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Insulin is a hormone. It helps sugar (glucose) in the blood get into cells of the body to be used as fuel. When glucose can’t enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia).

  • Type 2 Diabetes in Children

    Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder. Insulin is a hormone. It helps sugar (glucose) in the blood get into cells of the body to be used as fuel. When glucose can’t enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). High blood sugar can cause problems all over the body.

  • Addison's Disease in Children

    Addison's disease is when the adrenal glands don't make enough of two steroid hormones. The hormones are cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol controls the body's metabolism, blocks inflammatory reactions, and affects the immune system. Aldosterone manages sodium and potassium levels. Addison's disease is fairly rare and may first appear at any age.

  • Overview of Adrenal Disorders
  • Normal Growth

    A child's growth not only involves the length and weight of his or her body, but also internal growth and development.

  • 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder marked by hypoparathyroidism, certain heart defects, and a cleft lip or palate.