Health Information

Neurological Disorders

  • Anatomy of a Child's Brain

    The brain can be divided into three areas, the cerebrum, the brainstem, and the cerebellum.

  • Anencephaly

    Anencephaly is a type of neural tube defect present at birth. It affects the formation of the brain and the skull bones that surround the head.

  • Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Children

    Many types of trauma can cause an acute spinal cord injury. The more common types occur when the area of the spine or neck is bent or compressed.

  • Brain Abscess

    A brain abscess is a rare infection in the brain caused by viruses or bacteria. Symptoms include fever, severe headache, and nausea or vomiting.

  • Congenital and Hereditary Neurological Disorders

    Detailed information on the most common congenital and hereditary disorders in children

  • Cerebral Palsy

    Cerebral palsy is a life-long condition that affects the communication between the brain and the muscles, causing a permanent state of uncoordinated movement and posturing.

  • Craniosynostosis

    Craniosynostosis is a condition where one or more of the bones of the skull close too early. This can cause problems with normal brain and skull growth.

  • Diagnostic Tests for Neurological Disorders in Children

    Detailed information on the most common diagnostic tests for neurological disorders in children

  • Overview of Diagnostic Tests for Nervous System Disorders in Children

    Evaluating and diagnosing damage to the nervous system can be complicated. Many of the same symptoms occur in different combinations among the different disorders, and many disorders do not have definitive causes, markers, or tests.

  • Electroencephalogram (EEG) for Children

    An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test that measures the electrical activity in the brain. An EEG measures brain waves through small button electrodes that are placed on your child's scalp.

  • Encephalitis in Children

    Encephalitis refers to inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell, which leads to changes in the child's neurological condition, including mental confusion and seizures.

  • Guillain-Barre Syndrome in Children

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is a neurological disorder in which a child's immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The disorder usually occurs a few days or weeks after the child has had symptoms of a respiratory or gastrointestinal viral infection.

  • Headaches in Children

    Many headaches in children may be caused by tight muscles and dilated blood vessels in the head. Other headaches may be caused by an actual problem, such as a tumor or malformation of the brain, although this is much less common.

  • Head Injury in Children

    The more common causes of head injury in children are falls, motor vehicle accidents—in which the child is either a passenger or a pedestrian—or a result of child abuse.

  • Inflammatory and Infectious Neurological Disorders

    Detailed information on the most common inflammatory and infectious disorders in children

  • Home Page - Neurological Disorders

    Detailed information on neurological disorders in children

  • Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    If your baby is born prematurely, there are many worries that likely go through your mind. One of the things that can happen is bleeding on the brain. Read on to learn about this and what doctors can do help your baby.

  • Microcephaly

    An infant with microcephaly has a head that is much smaller than normal for an infant of that age and gender. Most children with microcephaly also have a small brain and mental retardation.

  • Myasthenia Gravis in Children

    Myasthenia gravis is a complex, autoimmune disorder that causes problems with the nerves that communicate with muscles, resulting in weakness of the skeletal muscles.

  • Neurological Exam for Children

    Is it time for your baby to have a full physical exam? Your pediatrician might want to conduct a “neuro exam.” Don’t worry, this series of tests designed to evaluate your child’s nervous system is painless. Here’s what it entails.

  • Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children

    Neurocutaneous syndrome is a broad term for a group of disorders. These diseases are life-long conditions that can cause tumors to grow inside the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin, and skeletal bones.

  • Neurological Disorders in the Newborn

    Detailed information on the most common neurological disorders in the newborn

  • Neuromuscular Disorders

    Detailed information on the most common neuromuscular disorders in children

  • Online Resources - Neurological Disorders

    List of online resources to find additional information on nervous system disorders

  • Overview of Nervous System Disorders in Children

    The most common symptoms of nervous system disorders in children include delays in developmental milestones, an increase or lack of growth in head size, and a lack of coordination.

  • Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL)

    The head is one of the most fragile parts on your baby, especially after birth. Sometimes, damage can occur, particularly if your baby is born prematurely. One type of brain damage is called periventricular leukomalacia. Read on to better understand what this diagnosis means for you and your baby, and what doctors can do to help.

  • Reye Syndrome

    Reye syndrome is a rare condition that can affect children between ages 4 and 12. The more common cases occur in conjunction with a previous viral infection, such as the flu or chickenpox.

  • Seizures and Epilepsy in Children

    A seizure occurs when parts of the brain receive a burst of abnormal electrical signals that temporarily interrupts normal electrical brain function.

  • Topic Index - Neurological Disorders

    Detailed information on neurological disorders in children

  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease that affects the spinal cord and nerves, resulting in muscle wasting and weakness.

  • Spinal Tap or Lumbar Puncture

    A spinal tap, also called lumbar puncture, is done to measure the amount of pressure in the spinal canal and/or to remove a small amount of cerebral spinal fluid for testing.

  • Trauma

    Detailed information on neurological trauma in children

  • Brain Tumors in Children

    A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The brain is part of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS also includes the spinal cord.

  • Hydrocephalus

    A baby with hydrocephalus has extra fluid around the brain. This fluid is called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Too much CSF can increase the pressure in your baby’s head. This causes the bones in your baby’s skull to expand and separate. The baby's head may look larger than normal.

  • Meningitis in Children

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and the spinal cord. Bacteria or viruses are the more common causes.

  • Muscular Dystrophy

    Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time.

  • Spina Bifida

    Spina bifida can occur in the early weeks of pregnancy, before you even know you are expecting. That’s why your baby is depending on you to have healthy habits in place from the start. Learn more about the prevention and treatment of this birth defect.

  • Chiari II Malformation in Children

    A Chiari malformation is a problem in which a part of the brain at the rear of the skull bulges through a normal opening (foramen magnum) in the skull where it joins the spinal canal.

  • Chiari Malformation Type I in Children

    A Chiari malformation (CM) is a problem with how the brain sits in the skull. The brain normally sits fully inside the skull. With a Chiari malformation, the lower part of the brain (cerebellum) dips down through a normal opening (foramen magnum) at the bottom of the skull. In some cases, more brain tissue also dips down through this opening.