Health Information

Normal Newborn

  • Bathing and Skin Care

    Bath time is a great time to bond with your newborn while keeping his/her skin healthy and cuddly soft. Get the facts—and proper supplies—to make these moments safe and enjoyable for both you and baby.

  • Normal Newborn Behaviors and Activities

    Detailed information on normal newborn behaviors and activities

  • Newborn-Reflexes

    Ever wonder why your baby flings his arms out sideways when startled? This reaction—called the Moro reflex—is one of many natural reflexes your newborn should exhibit. Read on to learn about common newborn reflexes and what they mean.

  • Newborn-Senses

    Babies are born with the ability to focus only at close range—about eight to 10 inches, or the distance between a mother's face to the baby in her arms.

  • Newborn-Sleep Patterns

    You’ve spent nine months doing everything to ensure your baby arrives healthy. Now that your baby is here, you have another important decision to make: Finding pediatrician that is right for you and your baby.

  • Effective Breastfeeding

    Think there’s only one way to breast-feed? Think again! Moms can position their babies in several positions during feeding time that can be comfortable for both.

  • Breast Milk Is the Best Milk

    Your milk contains just the right balance of nutrients, and it contains them in a form most easily used by the human baby's immature body systems.

  • Breastfeeding: Getting Started

    The first weeks of breastfeeding should be considered a learning period for both you and your baby. Don't expect to work as a coordinated team immediately.

  • Effective Sucking

    It’s important for your baby’s health to be able to effectively remove milk from your breast during nursing. To do this, your baby must learn the proper way to suck. But how do you know if your baby is actually getting the nutrition he/she needs? Here’s a guide to help you.

  • Bottle-Feeding

    Detailed information on bottle-feeding, including information on the different types of baby formula

  • Baby's Care After a Cesarean Delivery

    Because babies born by cesarean may have difficulty clearing some of the lung fluid and mucus, extra suctioning of the nose, mouth, and throat are often needed.

  • When a Baby Has Difficulty After Birth

    Babies who may have difficulty at birth are those born prematurely, those who experienced a difficult delivery, maternal illness, or those with birth defects.

  • Baby's Care in the Delivery Room

    A newborn baby is wet from the amniotic fluid and can easily become cold. Drying the baby and using warm blankets and heat lamps can help prevent heat loss. Often a knitted hat is placed on the baby's head.

  • Baby's Care After Birth

    Detailed information on baby's care after birth

  • Baby's Care After a Vaginal Delivery

    Healthy babies born in a vaginal delivery are usually able to stay with the mother. In many cases, immediate newborn assessments are performed right in the mother's room.

  • Circumcision

    Whether you decided to have your baby boy circumcised or not, it’s important to know how to care for his special needs. Find tips for caring for both circumcised and uncircumcised babies.

  • Umbilical Cord Care

    In a few weeks, your baby will have the cutest little belly button. But right now the healing remains of his umbilical cord need special care. Here’s how to make sure it stays infection-free.

  • Choosing a Pediatrician

    A pediatrician, family practice physician, or pediatric nurse practitioner can be your baby's primary care provider. The medical specialty dealing with children is called pediatrics.

  • Newborn Crying

    Crying is the way babies communicate. They cry because of hunger, discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and even loneliness.

  • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby

    Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the baby, including ineffective latch-on, ineffective sucking, slow infant weight gain, poor infant weight gain, mismanaged breastfeeding, over-active breast milk let down

  • Ineffective Latch-on or Sucking

    Detailed information on ineffective latch-on or sucking during breastfeeding

  • Mismanaged Breastfeeding

    Detailed information on mismanaged breastfeeding, including information on breastfeeding positions

  • Overactive Let-Down

    Many nursing mothers worry if their babies aren’t getting enough milk—but what if the opposite were true? Here’s what you can do to make sure your aren’t overwhelming your baby during feeding time.

  • Slow or Poor Infant Weight Gain

    Are you concerned that your little one has slow or poor weight gain? Unsure? This article will help you sort out your questions and concerns.

  • Diapers/Diaper Rash

    You have two choices in diapers—cloth or disposable, and each type has advantages. You must decide which works best for your child and family.

  • Insufficient or Delayed Milk Production

    Detailed information on insufficient or delayed milk production

  • Flat or Inverted Nipples

    Detailed information on breastfeeding and flat or inverted nipples

  • Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother

    Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the mother, including sore nipples, low breast milk production, flat nipples, plugged milk ducts, and mastitis

  • Low Milk Production

    Detailed information on breastfeeding and low breast milk production

  • Plugged Milk Ducts

    For mothers who breastfeed, some may be more susceptible to plugged ducts than others. Get some quick tips on how to avoid and manage this concern, so you can keep you and your baby happy and healthy!

  • Sore Nipples

    Detailed information on breastfeeding and sore nipples

  • Fever in A Newborn

    Detailed information on fevers in children

  • Behavior Changes

    Although a baby's activity level, appetite, and cries normally vary from day to day, even hour to hour, a distinct change in any of these areas may signal illness.

  • When to Call Your Physician

    Detailed information on when to call your baby's physician

  • Breathing Problems

    If you listen closely, you’ll notice that your baby’s breathing isn’t like yours. Babies breathe much more frequently and with different patterns than adults. Here’s how to recognize normal breathing in your infant—and how to spot signs of respiratory distress.

  • Skin Color Changes

    The color of a baby's skin can often help identify possible problems in another area of the body. It is important for you to call your doctor if certain skin color changes occur.

  • Measuring a Baby's Temperature

    Most physicians recommend taking a baby's temperature rectally, by placing a thermometer in the baby's anus. This method is accurate and gives a quick reading of the baby's internal temperature.

  • Physical Examination of the Newborn
  • Gestational Assessment

    It’s not always easy to tell a newborn’s age by their size. Premature babies are usually small, but full-term and past-term babies can be small, too. That’s when doctors will perform a gestational assessment to determine if a newborn needs special treatment.

  • Newborn Health Assessment

    Detailed information on newborn health assessments

  • Measurements
  • Newborn Warning Signs

    Warning signs that may indicate a possible problem in your newborn include no urine in the first 24 hours at home; a rectal temperature of 100.4 degrees or higher; or a rapid breathing rate.

  • Childhood Immunizations

    Your little one will need several immunization shots to help protect her from several childhood diseases, some of which can be deadly. Knowing which shots she needs, when, and what to do in the event of a minor reaction is important.

  • Home Page - Normal Newborn

    Detailed information on newborn care

  • Getting to Know Your New Baby

    Getting to know your new baby is part of a fascinating but relatively simple process called bonding, in which you essentially "fall in love" with each other.

  • Maternal Nutrition and Breastfeeding

    Women who are breastfeeding should eat a well-balanced, varied diet and drink enough liquids.

  • Breast Milk Collection and Storage

    Detailed information on breast milk collection and storage

  • Taking Care of Your Breast Pump and Collection Kit

    Moms who bottle feed their babies are always worried about keeping the bottles and nipples clean and sterilized at all times. Likewise, if you’re a breastfeeding mom you have to be concerned with keeping your breast pump and all its parts clean to keep your baby safe from breast milk contamination.

  • Storing Your Breast Milk

    Glass or hard plastic containers are the best storage containers for human milk, especially if it is to be frozen and stored for weeks or months.

  • Thawing Breast Milk

    Use the oldest milk first, and thaw it by placing the collection container in the refrigerator for several hours or overnight.

  • Using a Breast Pump

    A breast pump is an important piece of equipment for the breastfeeding mom who wants to increase her supply or store pumped breast milk. While it seems like a simple thing to sit down and pump out milk, there are things you can do to make pumping more effective.

  • Birth Injuries

    For various reasons, some babies have a more difficult trip through the birth canal than others, resulting in physical injuries. Such injuries usually are not serious and clear up or improve within a few days or weeks following the birth.

  • Newborn Complications

    Detailed information on the most common types of newborn complications

  • Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

    Transient tachypnea of the newborn is a term for a mild respiratory problem of babies that begins after birth and lasts about three days.

  • Thrush

    Thrush is a yeast infection in the mouth and throat of babies. Babies usually contract the organism from the mother's body during delivery and may develop thrush as early as 2 weeks old.

  • Newborn Appearance

    A baby's skin coloring can vary greatly, depending on the baby's age, race or ethnic group, temperature, and whether or not the baby is crying. Skin color in babies often changes with both the environment and health.

  • Newborn Care

    Detailed information on newborn care

  • The New Mother - Taking Care of Yourself After Birth

    You will need plenty of rest, good nutrition, and help during the first few weeks after your baby is born.

  • Infant Feeding Guide

    How much, what, and when to feed your baby can seem daunting. But this cheat sheet will give you the information you need to start your baby on the right “nutritional” foot.

  • Online Resources - Normal Newborn

    List of online resources to find additional information on newborn care

  • Preparing the Family

    Most families soon find ways to adjust to the changes that take place after a baby is born. But it is helpful to prepare some family members for what is ahead.

  • Preparing for Your New Baby

    Detailed information on preparing for your new baby

  • Eye Prophylaxis/Vitamin K Injection
  • Hearing Screening Tests for Newborns
  • Common Procedures

    Detailed information on the most common procedures performed on newborns

  • Newborn Immunizations

    Your newborn is fragile and needs protection from the new world. One of the first steps you can take to protect your baby is to get her vaccinated. Learn about the first scheduled immunization—the hepatitis B vaccine—and how it keeps your baby safe from serious illness.

  • Getting Ready at Home

    Newborns need just some basic items at first—a warm and safe place to sleep, food, clothing, and diapers.

  • Topic Index - Normal Newborn

    Detailed information on newborn care

  • Introducing a Bottle

    You’ve been breast-feeding your baby up until now—but it’s time to return to work. You haven’t given her a bottle with breast milk yet. When should you make the change? Here are tips to make a successful transition from breast to bottle.

  • Child Care

    Choosing a childcare provider for your baby is an important decision. Find one who supports your choice to breastfeed and is willing to carry out your plan. Doing so will give you peace of mind and make your transition back to work easier.

  • Breast Milk Expression - Helpful Equipment

    Hospital-grade, electric breast pumps are the only pumps built for frequent and prolonged use. These pumps automatically cycle suction with release of suction—similar to a baby's sucking action.

  • Breastfeeding and Returning To Work

    Detailed information on breastfeeding while at work

  • At Work

    Many mothers find they maintain milk production more easily if they breastfeed before showering or getting ready for work and then breastfeed again just before leaving the baby with the care provider.

  • Maternity Leave

    The length of time given for a paid maternity leave of absence varies among companies. Some women extend their maternity leaves by taking additional weeks of unpaid leave.

  • Breast Milk Expression

    Most mothers who plan to continue breastfeeding will need to express their breast milk during the work or school day if away from the baby for more than three or four hours.

  • Getting Ready

    About two weeks before you return to work, start pumping or expressing milk for storage to use once you return to work.

  • Your Workplace

    Discuss your plan to continue to breastfeed, and your need to pump/express breast milk during the workday, with your employer when you are pregnant or before you return to work.

  • Breastfeeding Your Baby

    Detailed information on breastfeeding, including information on breast milk, starting breastfeeding, breast milk production, effective breastfeeding, breastfeeding difficulties, sore nipples, insufficient breast milk production, delayed breast milk production, low breast milk production, flat nipples, inverted nipples, plugged milk ducts, mastitis, breastfeeding latch-on difficulties, and poor infant weight gain

  • Gastrointestinal Problems

    If your baby seems fussy and you’ve fed and changed him, he may have an upset stomach or colic. But don’t worry, there are lots of things you can do to make your little one more comfortable and keep both of you calm.

  • How Milk Is Made

    Detailed information on how breast milk is made for breastfeeding

  • Mastitis

    Detailed information on breastfeeding and mastitis

  • Newborn Screening Tests
  • Overview of Birth Defects

    A "birth defect" is a health problem or physical change that is present in a baby at the time he/she is born.

  • Hypoglycemia in the Newborn

    Babies who are more likely to develop hypoglycemia include those born to women who have diabetes.