Health Information


  • Septic Arthritis (Infectious Arthritis) in Children

    Septic arthritis is an infection in the joint fluid (synovial fluid) and joint tissues. It occurs more often in children than in adults.

  • Bone Cancers in Children

    Detailed information on bone cancer in children, including Ewing sarcoma and osteogenic sarcoma

  • Cast Types and Maintenance Instructions

    The outside of a cast can be made of plaster or fiberglass. Cotton and synthetic materials line the inside of the cast to make it soft and to provide padding around bony areas, such as the wrist or elbow.

  • Congenital and Hereditary Orthopedic Disorders

    Detailed information on the most common congenital and hereditary disorders in children

  • Congenital Limb Defects

    Congenital limb defects happen when a portion or the entire upper or lower limb fails to form normally when the baby is developing in the uterus.

  • Clubfoot

    Detailed information on clubfoot, including causes, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and cast care

  • Crutch Walking

    Hold the top part of the crutch firmly between the chest and the inside of the upper arm. Do not allow the top of the crutch to push up into the armpit. It is possible to damage nerves and blood vessels with constant pressure.

  • Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH)

    Detailed information on developmental dysplasia of the hip, including causes, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and cast care

  • Dislocations

    A dislocation happens when extreme force is put on a ligament, allowing the ends of two connected bones to separate. Ligaments are flexible bands of fibrous tissue that connect various bones and cartilage.

  • Femoral Anteversion

    Femoral anteversion is an inward twisting of the thigh bone. It is typically detected when a child is 4 to 6 years old.

  • Fractures

    Fractures occur when more force is applied to the bone than the bone can absorb. Bones are weakest when they are twisted.

  • Growth-Related Disorders

    Detailed information on the most common growth-related disorders in children

  • Inflammatory and Infectious Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Detailed information on the most common types of inflammatory and infectious disorders in children

  • Home Page - Orthopedics

    Detailed information on orthopedic disorders in children

  • Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a form of arthritis in children. Arthritis causes joint swelling (inflammation) and joint stiffness. JIA is arthritis that affects 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks in a child age 16 or younger.

  • Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease

    This disease is a temporary condition that causes the hip joint to become painful and stiff.

  • Lordosis

    A spine affected by lordosis has a curve in the vertebrae in the lower back area. This gives the child a "swayback" appearance.

  • Metatarsus Adductus

    Metatarsus adductus is a common foot deformity noted at birth that causes the front half of the foot, or forefoot, to turn inward.

  • Nursemaid's Elbow

    Nursemaid's elbow happens when the radius—one of the bones in the forearm—slips out of place from where it normally attaches to the elbow joint.

  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta in Children

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is also known as brittle-bone disease because it is characterized by bones that break easily without a specific cause.

  • Online Resources - Orthopedics

    List of online resources to find additional information on orthopedics

  • The Pediatrics Orthopedic Team

    Detailed information on each member of the pediatric orthopedic treatment team

  • When Your Child Has Osteomyelitis

    Osteomyelitis is an infection of a bone by a germ (bacteria or fungus). In children, infection in the long bones of the arms and legs are most common. A child with osteomyelitis will be referred to an orthopedist (doctor specializing in treating bone and joint problems) for evaluation and treatment.

  • Osteosarcoma (Osteogenic Sarcoma) in Children

    Osteosarcoma is cancer of the bone. The cancer (malignant) cells make immature bone cells (osteoid). Osteosarcoma is rare, but it is the most common type of bone cancer in children and teens. It is most common when teens have growth spurts. That is between the ages of 13 and 16.

  • Overuse Injuries

    Detailed information on overuse injuries in children, including jumper's knee, patellar tendonitis, little leaguers' elbow, little leaguers' shoulder, osteochondritis dissecans, Sever's disease, shin splints, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease, spondylolisthesis, and spondylolysis

  • Sports Injury Prevention

    Detailed information on sports safety, including safety gear and equipment

  • Evaluation Procedures for Children

    Detailed information on evaluation procedures used to diagnosis orthopaedic disorders in children

  • Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

    Detailed information on slipped capital femoral epiphysis, including cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Topic Index - Orthopedics

    Detailed information on orthopaedic disorders in children

  • Sports Injuries and Children

    Detailed information on sports injuries in children, including overuse injuries, sprains, strains, and heat-related illnesses

  • Tibial Torsion

    Tibial torsion causes a child's feet to turn inward, or to have what is also known as a "pigeon-toed" appearance.

  • Ewing Sarcoma in Children

    Ewing sarcoma is a rare type of cancer. It’s most common in children and teens between the ages 10 and 19. It usually grows in bone, but it can also grow in soft tissue that’s connected to the bone. This may include tendons, ligaments, cartilage, or muscles.

  • Heat-Related Illnesses (Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke)

    Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.

  • Kyphosis in Children

    Detailed information on kyphosis, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment.

  • Osgood-Schlatter Disease

    Osgood-Schlatter disease is an overuse condition or injury of the knee that causes pain and swelling below the knee area over the shin bone.

  • Muscular Dystrophy

    Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time.

  • Scoliosis in Children

    Detailed information on scoliosis, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Sprains and Strains in Children

    Strains, sprains, and bruises make up the majority of sports injuries. Treatment for a strain or sprain depends on the child's age and the extent of the injury.

  • Tennis Elbow

    Tennis elbow is a repetitive stress injury of the elbow that happens when the muscles and tendons in the elbow area are torn or damaged.

  • Osteomyelitis in Children

    Acute osteomyelitis is an infection in the bone. It develops over a short time, usually about 2 weeks. In children, osteomyelitis is more common in the long bones of the arms and legs. But it can affect any bone in the body. Osteomyelitis can happen in children of any age. About half of the time, it happens in children under 5 years of age.