The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. It lies just below the bladder (the organ that collects and empties urine) and in front of the rectum (the lower part of the intestine). It is about the size of a walnut and surrounds part of the urethra (the tube that empties urine from the bladder). The prostate gland makes fluid that is part of the semen.
Prostate cancer is found mainly in older men. In the U.S., about 1 out of 5 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer.
These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by prostate cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:
- Weak or interrupted ("stop-and-go") flow of urine
- Sudden urge to urinate
- Frequent urination (especially at night)
- Trouble starting the flow of urine
- Trouble emptying the bladder completely
- Pain or burning while urinating
- Blood in the urine or semen
- A pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesn't go away
- Shortness of breath, feeling very tired, fast heartbeat, dizziness, or pale skin caused by anemia
Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. As men age, the prostate may get bigger and block the urethra or bladder. This may cause trouble urinating or sexual problems. The condition is called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and although it is not cancer, surgery may be needed. The symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia or of other problems in the prostate may be like symptoms of prostate cancer.
Tests that examine the prostate and blood are used to detect (find) and diagnose prostate cancer. The following tests and procedures may be used:
- Digital rectal exam (DRE): An exam of the rectum. The doctor or nurse inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum and feels the prostate through the rectal wall for lumps or abnormal areas.
- Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: A test that measures the level of PSA in the blood. PSA is a substance made by the prostate that may be found in an increased amount in the blood of men who have prostate cancer. PSA levels may also be high in men who have an infection or inflammation of the prostate or BPH (an enlarged, but noncancerous, prostate).
- Transrectal ultrasound: A procedure in which a probe that is about the size of a finger is inserted into the rectum to check the prostate. The probe is used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. Transrectal ultrasound may be used during a biopsy procedure.
- Biopsy: The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist. The pathologist will check the tissue sample to see if there are cancer cells and find out the Gleason score. The Gleason score ranges from 2-10 and describes how likely it is that a tumor will spread. The lower the number, the less likely the tumor is to spread.
There are two types of biopsy procedures used to diagnose prostate cancer:
- Transrectal biopsy: The removal of tissue from the prostate by inserting a thin needle through the rectum and into the prostate. This procedure is usually done using transrectal ultrasound to help guide where samples of tissue are taken from. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
- Transperineal biopsy: The removal of tissue from the prostate by inserting a thin needle through the skin between the scrotum and rectum and into the prostate. This procedure is usually done using transrectal ultrasound to help guide where samples of tissue are taken from. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
After prostate cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the prostate or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. The results of the tests used to diagnose prostate cancer are often also used to stage the disease. In prostate cancer, staging tests may not be done unless the patient has symptoms or signs that the cancer has spread, such as bone pain, a high PSA level, or a high Gleason score.
The following tests and procedures also may be used in the staging process
- Bone scan: A procedure to check if there are rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone. A very small amount of radioactive material is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive material collects in the bones and is detected by a scanner.
- MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
- CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.
- Pelvic lymphadenectomy: A surgical procedure to remove the lymph nodes in the pelvis. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
- Seminal vesicle biopsy: The removal of fluid from the seminal vesicles (glands that make semen) using a needle. A pathologist views the fluid under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
The stage of the cancer is based on the results of the staging and diagnostic tests, including the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and the Gleason score. The tissue samples removed during the biopsy are used to find out the Gleason score. The Gleason score ranges from 2-10 and describes how different the cancer cells look from normal cells and how likely it is that the tumor will spread. The lower the number, the less likely the tumor is to spread.
There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body:
- Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas.
- Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the lymph system. The cancer travels through the lymph vessels to other parts of the body.
- Blood. The cancer spreads from where it began by getting into the blood. The cancer travels through the blood vessels to other parts of the body.
Cancer may spread from where it began to other parts of the body. When cancer spreads to another part of the body, it is called metastasis. Cancer cells break away from where they began (the primary tumor) and travel through the lymph system or blood.
- Lymph system. The cancer gets into the lymph system, travels through the lymph vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
- Blood. The cancer gets into the blood, travels through the blood vessels, and forms a tumor (metastatic tumor) in another part of the body.
The metastatic tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if prostate cancer spreads to the bone, the cancer cells in the bone are actually prostate cancer cells. The disease is metastatic prostate cancer, not bone cancer.
The following stages are used for prostate cancer:
In stage I, cancer is found in the prostate only. The cancer:
- is found by needle biopsy (done for a high PSA level) or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons (such as benign prostatic hyperplasia). The PSA level is lower than 10 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or
- is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level is lower than 10 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or
- cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and cannot be seen in imaging tests. Cancer is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level and the Gleason score are not known.
In stage II, cancer is more advanced than in stage I, but has not spread outside the prostate. Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB.
In stage IIA, cancer:
- is found by needle biopsy (done for a high PSA level) or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons (such as benign prostatic hyperplasia). The PSA level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7; or
- is found by needle biopsy (done for a high PSA level) or in a small amount of tissue during surgery for other reasons (such as benign prostatic hyperplasia). The PSA level is at least 10 but lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or
- is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level is at least 10 but lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 6 or lower; or
- is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. The PSA level is lower than 20 and the Gleason score is 7; or
- is found in more than one-half of one lobe of the prostate.
In stage IIB, cancer:
- is found in opposite sides of the prostate. The PSA can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10; or
- cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and cannot be seen in imaging tests. The PSA level is 20 or higher and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10; or
- cannot be felt during a digital rectal exam and cannot be seen in imaging tests. The PSA can be any level and the Gleason score is 8 or higher.
In stage III, cancer has spread beyond the outer layer of the prostate and may have spread to the seminal vesicles. The PSA can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10.
In stage IV, the PSA can be any level and the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10. Also, cancer:
- has spread beyond the seminal vesicles to nearby tissue or organs, such as the rectum, bladder, or pelvic wall; or
- may have spread to the seminal vesicles or to nearby tissue or organs, such as the rectum, bladder, or pelvic wall. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes; or
- has spread to distant parts of the body, which may include lymph nodes or bones. Prostate cancer often spreads to the bones.
At Huntsman Cancer Institute, prostate cancer is treated by a team of specialists, including urologists (doctors who specialize in diseases of the urinary system), surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, nurses, social workers, dietitians, and other professionals.
Different types of treatment are available for patients with prostate cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
Eight types of standard treatment are used:
- Watchful waiting
- Radiation therapy
- Hormone therapy
- Biologic therapy
- Biophosphonate therapy
- Targeted therapy
New treatments are being tested in clinical trials.
Watchful waiting and active surveillance are treatments used for older men who do not have signs or symptoms or have other medical conditions and for men whose prostate cancer is found during a screening test.
Watchful waiting is closely monitoring a patient’s condition without giving any treatment until signs or symptoms appear or change. Treatment is given to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.
Active surveillance is closely following a patient's condition without giving any treatment unless there are changes in test results. It is used to find early signs that the condition is getting worse. In active surveillance, patients are given certain exams and tests, including digital rectal exam, PSA test, transrectal ultrasound, and transrectal needle biopsy, to check if the cancer is growing. When the cancer begins to grow, treatment is given to cure the cancer. Other terms that are used to describe not giving treatment to cure prostate cancer right after diagnosis are observation, watch and wait, and expectant management.
Patients in good health whose tumor is in the prostate gland only may be treated with surgery to remove the tumor. The following types of surgery are used:
- Radical prostatectomy: A surgical procedure to remove the prostate, surrounding tissue, and seminal vesicles. There are two types of radical prostatectomy:
- Retropubic prostatectomy: A surgical procedure to remove the prostate through an incision (cut) in the abdominal wall. Removal of nearby lymph nodes may be done at the same time.
- Perineal prostatectomy: A surgical procedure to remove the prostate through an incision (cut) made in the perineum (area between the scrotum and anus). Nearby lymph nodes may also be removed through a separate incision in the abdomen.
- Pelvic lymphadenectomy: A surgical procedure to remove the lymph nodes in the pelvis. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells. If the lymph nodes contain cancer, the doctor will not remove the prostate and may recommend other treatment.
- Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP): A surgical procedure to remove tissue from the prostate using a resectoscope (a thin, lighted tube with a cutting tool) inserted through the urethra. This procedure is done to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy and it is sometimes done to relieve symptoms caused by a tumor before other cancer treatment is given. TURP may also be done in men whose tumor is in the prostate only and who cannot have a radical prostatectomy.
In some cases, nerve-sparing surgery can be done. This type of surgery may save the nerves that control erection. However, men with large tumors or tumors that are very close to the nerves may not be able to have this surgery.
Possible problems after prostate cancer surgery include the following:
- Leakage of urine from the bladder or stool from the rectum
- Shortening of the penis (1 to 2 centimeters). The exact reason for this is not known.
- Inguinal hernia (bulging of fat or part of the small intestine through weak muscles into the groin). Inguinal hernia may occur more often in men treated with radical prostatectomy than in men who have some other types of prostate surgery, radiation therapy, or prostate biopsy alone. It is most likely to occur within the first 2 years after radical prostatectomy.
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy:
- External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Conformal radiation is a type of external radiation therapy that uses a computer to create a 3-dimensional (3-D) picture of the tumor. The radiation beams are shaped to fit the tumor.
- Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer. In prostate cancer, the radioactive seeds (strontium-89) are placed in the prostate using needles that are inserted through the skin between the scrotum and rectum. The placement of the radioactive seeds in the prostate is guided by images from transrectal ultrasound or computed tomography (CT). The needles are removed after the radioactive seeds are placed in the prostate.
The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. Men treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer have an increased risk of having bladder and/or rectal cancer. Radiation therapy can cause impotence and urinary problems.
Learn more in our patient education factsheets about internal radiation for prostate cancer:
Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment that removes hormones or blocks their action and stops cancer cells from growing. Hormones are substances made by glands in the body and circulated in the bloodstream. In prostate cancer, male sex hormones can cause prostate cancer to grow. Drugs, surgery, or other hormones are used to reduce the amount of male hormones or block them from working.
Hormone therapy for prostate cancer may include the following:
- Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists can stop the testicles from making testosterone. Examples are leuprolide, goserelin, and buserelin.
- Antiandrogens can block the action of androgens (hormones that promote male sex characteristics), such as testosterone. Examples are flutamide, bicalutamide, enzalutamide, and nilutamide.
- Drugs that can prevent the adrenal glands from making androgens include ketoconazole and aminoglutethimide.
- Orchiectomy is a surgical procedure to remove one or both testicles, the main source of male hormones, such as testosterone, to decrease the amount of hormone being made.
- Estrogens (hormones that promote female sex characteristics) can prevent the testicles from making testosterone. However, estrogens are seldom used today in the treatment of prostate cancer because of the risk of serious side effects.
Hot flashes, impaired sexual function, loss of desire for sex, and weakened bones may occur in men treated with hormone therapy. Other side effects include diarrhea, nausea, and itching.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional
chemotherapy). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.. Learn more about this treatment in our Introduction to Chemotherapy video:
Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient’s immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body’s natural defenses against cancer. Sipuleucel-T is a type of biologic therapy used to treat prostate cancer that has metastasized (spread to other parts of the body).
Bisphosphonate drugs, such as clodronate, reduce bone disease and pain when cancer has spread to the bone.
Targeted therapy is a treatment that uses drugs or other substances to find and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells. Monoclonal antibody therapy is a type of targeted therapy.
Monoclonal antibody therapy is a cancer treatment that uses antibodies made in the laboratory, from a single type of immune system cell. These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow. The antibodies attach to the substances and kill the cancer cells, block their growth, or keep them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. They may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to cancer cells. Denosumab is a monoclonal antibody that slows damage to the bone from cancer and lessens bone problems such as weak bones and bone pain.
This section describes treatments that are being studied in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied. For more information, visit HCI's clinical trials website.
- Cryosurgery is a treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy prostate cancer cells. Ultrasound is used to find the area that will be treated. This type of treatment is also called cryotherapy. Cryosurgery can cause impotence and leakage of urine from the bladder or stool from the rectum.
- High-intensity focused ultrasound is a treatment that uses ultrasound (high-energy sound waves) to destroy cancer cells. To treat prostate cancer, an endorectal probe is used to make the sound waves.
- Proton beam radiation therapy is a type of high-energy, external radiation therapy that targets tumors with streams of protons (small, positively charged particles). This type of radiation therapy is being studied in the treatment of prostate cancer.
When you or someone you love is diagnosed with cancer, concerns about treatments and managing side effects, hospital stays, and medical bills are common. You may also worry about caring for your family, employment, or how to continue normal daily activities.
Here's where you can go for support:
- Your health care team can answer your questions and talk to you about your concerns. They can help you with any side effects and keep you informed of all your treatments, test results, and future doctor visits.
- The G. Mitchell Morris Cancer Learning Center has hundreds of free brochures and more than 3,000 books, DVDs, and CDs available for checkout. You can browse the library, perform Internet research, or talk with a cancer information specialist.
- Our Patient and Family Support Services professionals offer HCI patients and their families emotional support and resources for coping with cancer and its impact on daily life.
- The Linda B. and Robert B. Wiggins Wellness-Survivorship Center offers support groups, classes, and activities aimed to increase the quality of life and well-being of HCI patients and their families.
Adapted from the National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query (PDQ®) Cancer Information Summaries
This information last updated on HCI website January 2014
*If you are interested in a trial that is currently marked *Not Open, please contact the Patient Education team at 1-888-424-2100 or email@example.com for other trial options. Enrollment is updated daily.
Forte Research Systems in partnership with Huntsman Cancer Institute
William Lowrance, M.D., M.P.H.Locations
|Huntsman Cancer Hospital||(801) 587-4381|
Specialties: Laparoscopy, Prostate Cancer, Urinary Diversion, Urologic Oncology, Urology
Dennis C. Shrieve, M.D., Ph.D.Locations
|Huntsman Cancer Hospital||(801) 581-2396|
Specialties: Brain Tumors, Gastrointestinal Cancers, Genitourinary Cancers, Lung Cancer, Pediatric Radiation Therapy, Prostate Cancer, Radiation Oncology, Soft Tissue Sarcomas
Jonathan D. Tward, M.D., Ph.D.Locations
|Huntsman Cancer Hospital||(801) 581-2396|
|South Jordan Health Center||(801) 213-4320|
Specialties: Bladder Cancer, Brachytherapy, Gastrointestinal Cancers, Genitourinary Cancers, Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT), Lymphomas, Penile Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Radiation Oncology, Robotic Prostatectomy, Seed Implants, Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT), Urologic Oncology
Diseases and Conditions
- Coping with Prostate Cancer
- Diagnostic and Evaluation Procedures for Prostate Cancer
- Expectant Therapy
- For Family Members Coping with Prostate Cancer
- Grading of Prostate Cancer
- Prostate Cancer
- Prostate Cancer Index
- Psychosocial Factors
- Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer
- Signs and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
- Staging of Prostate Cancer
- Surgery for Prostate Cancer
- Treatments for Prostate Cancer
- Angiogenesis Inhibitors
- Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer
- Clinical Trials for Prostate Cancer
- Glossary - Prostate Health
- Herbal Remedies For Prostate Cancer
- Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer
- Prostate Cancer in African-American Men
- Radiation Therapy
- Home Page - Prostate Health
- Prostate Cancer Overview
Tests and Procedures
- Men Over 50 Need Annual Prostate Exam
- Screening for Prostate Cancer
- Am I At Risk for Prostate Cancer?
- Can I Survive Prostate Cancer? What Is My Prognosis?
- Do What You Can to Ease Side Effects of Treatment for Advanced Prostate Cancer
- FDA-Approved Drugs
- Goal of Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer
- How Does My Doctor Know I Have Prostate Cancer?
- How Your Doctor Uses Biopsies to Diagnose Prostate Cancer
- I've Just Been Told I Have Prostate Cancer
- Prostate Cancer Treatment Introduction
- Prostate Cancer Vaccines
- Prostate Cancer: Diet and Prevention
- Prostate Cancer: The Role of Tomatoes in Prevention
- Questions to Ask About Treatment for Prostate Cancer
- Statistics About Prostate Cancer
- Tell Your Healthcare Team How You Feel During Treatment for Prostate Cancer
- Tests That Help Evaluate Prostate Cancer
- The Goal of Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer
- Treatment Options for Local Prostate Cancer
- Treatment Options for Metastatic or Advanced Prostate Cancer
- Understanding the Gleason Score and Your Grade of Prostate Cancer
- Understanding Your Stage of Prostate Cancer
- What Are the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?
- What Happens During Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer
- What Happens During Hormone Treatment for Prostate Cancer
- What Happens During Internal Radiation Therapy (Brachytherapy) for Prostate Cancer
- What to Expect After Hormone Treatment for Prostate Cancer
- What to Know About Combination Therapy for Prostate Cancer
- What to Know About Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer
- What to Know About Surgery for Prostate Cancer
- What to Know About Your Treatment Choices for Prostate Cancer
- What You Need to Know About PIN
- Questions for Men About Prostate Cancer
- Dealing with Erectile Dysfunction
- Prostate Cancer and PSA Screening
- What Happens During External Beam Radiation Treatment for Prostate Cancer
- What to Expect After External Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer
- What to Expect After Internal Radiation (Brachytherapy) Treatment for Prostate Cancer
- What to Know About Lymph Node Biopsies: How to Tell if Prostate Cancer Has Spread
- Prostate Cancer: A Range of Treatment Options
- What Do You Know About Prostate Health?
- Osteoporosis in Men with Cancer
- What to Expect After Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer
- 18-Year Study Finds Drug Cut Prostate Cancer Risk
- Age, Other Illnesses May Make Prostate Cancer Treatment Unnecessary
- Agent Orange Tied to Lethal Prostate Cancer
- American Cancer Society Celebrates 100 Years of Progress
- Black Men Often Face Delays in Prostate Cancer Care: Study
- Black Prostate Cancer Patients More Likely to Delay Treatment: Study
- Blood Test Shows Promise for Cancer Detection, Study Finds
- Can Selenium Lower Risk of Advanced Prostate Cancer?
- Cancer Patients May Face Higher Bankruptcy Odds
- Could Heavy Coffee Drinking Help Men Battle Prostate Cancer?
- Do Some Docs Have Vested Interest in Prescribing Radiation for Prostate Cancer?
- Drug May Extend Survival for Men With Advanced Prostate Cancer
- Experimental Drugs Show Promise Against Prostate Cancer
- Experts Call for Redefinition of 'Cancer'
- Extended Hormone Therapy Doesn't Help Some Prostate Cancer Patients: Study
- FDA Approves New Drug to Fight Advanced Prostate Cancer
- Fitness in Middle Age May Help Shield Men From Cancer Later
- Gene Test May Help Predict Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness
- Helping Men Resolve Conflicts About Prostate Cancer Screening
- High-Tech Prostate Scan May Boost Cancer Detection
- History of Prostate Cancer Tied to Higher Odds for Melanoma
- Intermittent Hormone Treatment for Prostate Cancer Not the Best
- Is Early Baldness in Blacks a Clue to Prostate Cancer?
- Kidney Failure a Possible Risk of Prostate Cancer Hormone Treatment: Study
- 'Low-Risk' Prostate Cancer Diagnosis May Not Work for Black Men
- Many Doctors Ignore Guidelines, Order PSA Tests for Elderly Men
- Many Men Not Told Pros, Cons of PSA Testing, Survey Finds
- Many Men Plan to Ignore PSA Test Guideline: Survey
- Medicare Spending Not Linked to Longer Cancer Survival
- Metformin May Lower Risk of Prostate Cancer Death, Researchers Say
- More Genetic Insights Into 3 Types of Cancer
- Most Men Don't Need PSA Tests, Doctors' Group Says
- Mouse Study Hints at Plastics Chemical's Link to Prostate Cancer Risk
- Nearly 14 Million Cancer Survivors in U.S.: Report
- New Drug May Extend Survival for Some Prostate Cancer Patients
- New, Pricey Prostate Cancer Treatments May Be Overused: Study
- Newer, Pricier Prostate Cancer Radiation No Better Than Old: Study
- Number of Nerve Fibers Near Prostate Tumor Tied to Aggressiveness
- Obesity Linked to Prostate Cancer, Study Finds
- Older Men Gain Little From PSA Test: Study
- Overweight Men May Face Higher Death Risk From Prostate Cancer: Study
- Progress Against Cancer May Be Greater Than Thought
- Prostate Biopsies May Cause Unnecessary Worry for Many Men, Study Finds
- Prostate Cancer May Be Deadlier for the Uninsured
- Radiation Therapy Overused in Advanced Prostate Cancer, Study Says
- Scientists Explore Effect of Exercise on Prostate Cancer Patients
- 'Sleep Hormone' Tied to Possible Lower Prostate Cancer Risk
- Sleep Woes Tied to Prostate Cancer Risk in Study
- Soy Won't Prevent Prostate Cancer's Return: Study
- Statin Use Linked to Lower Prostate Cancer Death Risk
- Study Links Timing of ER Visit to Prostate Cancer Survival Odds
- Study Questions Value of PSA Test for Older Men
- Study Ties Y Chromosome Variations to Prostate Cancer Risk
- Surgery May Benefit Younger Prostate Cancer Patients
- Tests May Someday Show Which Breast, Prostate Cancers Will Turn Aggressive
- Too Much Fish Oil Might Boost Prostate Cancer Risk, Study Says
- Tweaking Dietary Fat Mix Might Boost Prostate Cancer Survival
- Type of Surgical Anesthesia Might Influence Prostate Cancer's Return
- U.S. Cancer Death Rates Continue to Decline: Report
- U.S. Cancer Deaths Decline Again: Report
- Urologists' Group Issues Updated Guidelines on PSA Test
- Usual 'Hot Flash' Therapies Don't Help Prostate Cancer Patients: Study
- Vitamin E, Selenium Supplements Might Double Chances of Prostate Cancer
- 'Watch & Wait' OK for Many Low-Grade Prostate Tumors: Study
- What's Good for the Heart May Also Prevent Cancer
- Xofigo Approved for Prostate Cancer