About Femoroacetabular Impingement (FAI)
Pain in the front part of the hip after prolonged sitting or walking may be caused by femoroacetabular impingement. This disorder is caused when the ball of the femur does not have full range of motion in the hip socket because there is too much bone around the femoral head, which causes pain. Or the hip socket may be turned backwards (retroversion) and the femur bumps into the socket (acetabulum). It is possible for both to occur.
Frequently Asked Questions About Femoroacetabular Impingement and Surgery
- What is femoroacetabular impingement?
- What are symptoms common with impingement?
- What happens inside a hip with impingement?
- What does retroversion mean?
- How do I know if I need surgery?
- What is involved in a femoroacetabular debridement?
- What is involved in a periacetabular osteotomy (PAO)?
- Will I need a blood transfusion?
- How long will I be in the hospital?
- What physical therapy do I have to do?
- What are the major risks to the surgery?
- What happens when I leave the hospital?
- What do I do at home while recovering?
- How long do I take narcotics?
- When can I drive?
- When do I see my doctor after surgery?
- Who do I call if I'm having problems after surgery?
- How long will it take to fully recover from surgery?
- How long with the surgery last? Will I need another surgery?
- What lifelong activities can I do or not do?
Impingement occurs when the ball (femoral head) doesn't have full range of motion in the socket (acetabulum). This is caused by too much bone around the femoral head and/or the socket turned backwards (retroversion) and the femur bumps into the rim of the acetabulum and causes pain and possibly damage over time.
Impingement can show at any age between 20-50 years old. Most of the time, people will start to get pain in the front of their hip (groin) after prolonged sitting or walking. Walking uphill can also be difficult. Sometimes they feel a dull ache in the groin, other times catching or popping.
When the extra bone on the femoral head and neck (ball) hits the rim of the acetabulum (socket) the cartilage and labrum can be damaged. These tissues are the cushion between the ball and socket (clear space on x-rays), and when damaged can cause pain and start to degenerate (get small tears and form arthritis). If left untreated, pain and arthritis continues, and usually a hip replacement (total hip arthroplasty) is needed at some point.
Retroversion is a form of acetabular dysplasia where the socket is facing more backwards than it normally would, which can cause the femur (thigh bone) to bump into it when you flex your hip. This happens because the front of the socket (anterior wall) is lower than the back of the socket (posterior wall). It can be seen by subtle shadows on x-ray. Anteversion means facing forward, and this is normal.
A specialist may recommend surgery if you have pain that is in the front groin (anterior) that affects daily activities and prevents you from doing the things you want to. If x-rays show extra bone around the head/neck with early degenerative changes (mild arthritis) but evidence of possible good cartilage, you may be a candidate for a femoracetabular debridement. If there is retroversion of the acetabulum (socket) and that seems to be contributing to the impingement, you may need a periacetabular osteotomy with or without a femoral head debridement.
Usually a femoroacetabular debridement is a surgery through an incision over the side of your hip where the surgeon removes the bone and damaged tissue.
The surgeon goes through an incision over the front of the hip, then, with x-ray guidance (fluoroscopy), carefully cuts through the three pelvic bones (ischium, pubis, ilium) around the acetabulum to free it from its original position. Once the acetabulum is in its new location (facing the right direction with good coverage), we fix it there with screws (usually three to six). From this same incision we can access the hip joint to debride extra bone from the head/neck as needed.
You may. We recycle the blood you lose at surgery and give it back to you if there is enough. But sometimes you will need a transfusion of one to two units after surgery. You may donate your own blood if you are able, but if not, the blood bank is very safe, and we can use that if it's needed.
Usually, the hospital stay is two to three days after surgery.
Starting the day after surgery you will have physical therapy twice a day that includes gentle exercises and learning to sit, stand and walk with partial weight-bearing and crutches. You may take a few steps the first day around your room and then into the hallway on the second day. After you leave the hospital, the important therapy you have to do is walk, rest and let your surgery heal.
The major risk include the following:
- Blood clot We reduce risk of this by using a blood thinner, T.E.D. hose (compressive stockings) and compression boots on your feet to increase circulation.
- Infection You are given IV antibiotics before surgery, which is continued for one day after, and then keep a close watch of the incision for redness or drainage.
- Failure to heal This is uncommon but always a concern, especially if you smoke. If the bone doesn't heal, the screws can break and the bone can move. An additional surgery to increase bone healing could be needed, but very rarely.
- Avascular Necrosis This is uncommon, but possible. If the blood supply to the femoral head is damaged, the bone may collapse and die. This could speed up the need for a total hip replacement, if it were to happen.
- Nerve Palsy from PAO A sensory nerve called the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve is right where we do surgery. We do our best to identify it and protect it but there is a 50% chance you will have some numbness over the front of your thigh; over time sensation usually returns.
You will usually need 24-hour help for a week. If you don't have adequate help at home, you could consider a rehabilitation center. The final plans will be made while you are recovering in the hospital.
First six weeks: You will finish taking blood thinners (aspirin for six weeks); wear T.E.D. hose; walk with two crutches (partial weight bearing); keep the wound clean.
Next six weeks: You will transition to one cane or crutch as instructed by your physician until three months after surgery; you may start gentle stretching or strengthening exercises; walk.
After three months: You may return to work part time or full time as tolerated (two to three months from surgery), continue to walk and return to gentle exercise.
After six months: You may return to full activity (when the bones are completely healed) except for running/jumping activities. The best lifelong activities are walking, swimming and biking to preserve your hips’ health.
Only as long as you need to, about seven to 21 days from surgery. Be aware that sometimes anti-inflammatories (NSAIDS) can slow down bone healing, but Tylenol doesn't.
Usually three to four weeks after surgery.
You will probably have staples and should see your doctor in two weeks, then again six weeks after surgery for x-rays, then three months, six months, one year, and every year or two so we can see how your hip progresses.
Call the nurse/MA who works with your surgeon. Call the orthopedic clinic and ask for her voicemail; she will get back to you within a business day; otherwise, call the orthopedic resident on-call.
For debridement or periacetabular osteotomy, you will be walking within a couple days of surgery, on one to two crutches for three months, and it usually takes nine to 12 months to feel fully recovered.
We hope to prolong the time between now and when you need a hip replacement. But the exact time in years is unknown, and on an individual basis, based on the amount of arthritis in your hip already.
We advise patients to resume what they can tolerate, especially walking, swimming and bicycle riding. We discourage repetitive jumping, running and heavy manual labor and lifting. These activities tend to wear out the hip faster.
ACL Reconstruction, Femoroacetabular Impingement, Hip Arthroscopy, Hip Preservation, Knee, Knee Preservation, Labral Tear, Minimally Invasive Joint Surgery, Orthopaedic Surgery, Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Sports Medicine
|Pediatric Orthopaedics||(801) 662-5600|
|University Orthopaedic Center||(801) 587-0989|
Adult Reconstruction, Femoroacetabular Impingement, Hip Arthroscopy, Hip Preservation, Hip Replacement, Joint Replacement, Knee Replacement, Minimally Invasive Joint Surgery, Orthopaedic Surgery, Periacetabular Osteotomy, Physician Assistant, Surgical Dislocation
|University Orthopaedic Center||(801) 587-7028|
ACL Reconstruction, Cartilage Restoration, Femoroacetabular Impingement, Hip Arthroscopy, Hip Preservation, Minimally Invasive Joint Surgery, Orthopaedic Surgery, Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Sports Medicine
|Primary Children's Hospital||(801) 662-5600|
|South Jordan Health Center||(801) 213-4500|
|University Orthopaedic Center||(801) 587-7109|
Adult Reconstruction, Direct Anterior Hip Replacement, Femoroacetabular Impingement, Hip Arthroscopy, Hip Dysplasia, Hip Instability, Hip Preservation, Hip Replacement, Hip Revision, Joint Infection, Joint Replacement, Knee Preservation, Knee Replacement, Knee Revision, Labral Tear, Minimally Invasive Joint Surgery, Orthopaedic Surgery, Oxford Partial Knee Replacement, Patello-Femoral Arthroplasty (PFA), Periacetabular Osteotomy, Surgical Dislocation, Uni-Compartmental Knee Arthroplasty, Unicompartmental Knee Replacement
|University Orthopaedic Center||(801) 587-7109|
Adult Reconstruction, Femoroacetabular Impingement, Hip Dysplasia, Hip Preservation, Hip Replacement, Hip Revision, Joint Replacement, Knee Replacement, Labral Tear, Minimally Invasive Joint Surgery, Orthopaedic Surgery, Periacetabular Osteotomy, Surgical Dislocation, Uni-Compartmental Knee Arthroplasty
|University Orthopaedic Center||(801) 587-7109|