Principal Investigator: Phillip Barnette
Keywords: Pediatrics , Oncology , Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia , Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia , AML Department: Pediatric Administration
IRB Number: 00084830
Specialty: Oncology
Sub Specialties:
Recruitment Status: Recruiting

Contact Information

Jennifer Craig

Brief Summary

1. Primary Objective

The primary objective of the study is:

  • To determine the activity of lenalidomide in the treatment of pediatric subjects with relapsed/refractory AML (with second or greater relapse or refractory to at least 2 prior induction attempts) measured by morphological complete response defined as either a CR or CRi within the first 4 cycles of treatment.

2. Secondary Objectives

The secondary objectives of the study are:

  • To evaluate subject demographics and leukemic blast characteristics and their correlation with response to lenalidomide.
  • To further evaluate lenalidomide activity with regards to response assessment outcome rates, transplantation rate, duration of response (DOR), and durable response rate.
  • To evaluate the safety of lenalidomide including rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) flare and reactivation.
  • To determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) of lenalidomide in plasma.

3. Exploratory

  • To evaluate the long-term benefit of lenalidomide characterized by leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS).
  • To correlate bone marrow minimal risidual disease (MRD) measured by mult-parameter flow cytometry with morphologic response.
  • To evaluate baseline cereblon (CRBN) expression in leukemic blasts and correlate with clinical response to lenalidomide.
  • To evaluate molecular and cellular characteristics of leukemic blasts in association with reponse to lenalidomide therapy.
  • To evaludate lenalidomide renal excretion in pediatric subjects.

Inclusion Criteria

Subjects must satisfy the following criteria to be enrolled in the study:

1. Male or female is 1 to ≤ 18 years of age at the time of signing the ICF/IAF.

2. Subject (when applicable, parental/legal representative) must understand and voluntarily provide permission to the ICF/IAF prior to conducting any study-related assessments/procedures.

3. Subject has rrAML after at least 2 prior induction attempts:

  • Bone marrow aspirate or biopsy must have ≥ 5% blasts by morphology and/or flow cytometry.
  • Each block of chemotherapy (ie, ADE, MA) is a separate reinduction attempt.
  • Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is considered a reinduction attempt.

4. Subject is willing and able to adhere to the study visit schedule and other protocol requirements.

5. Subject has a Karnofsky score of ≥ 50% (subjects ≥ 16 years of age) or a Lansky score ≥ 50% (subjects < 16 years of age).

6. Subject has a resting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of ≥ 40% obtained by echocardiography.

7. Subject is able to swallow intact oral capsules. (removed with Amendment 1) 

8. Subject has recovered from the acute toxic effects of all prior chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or radiotherapy prior to first dose. All prior treatment-related toxicities must have resolved to ≤ Grade 2 prior to enrollment.

9. Regarding radiation therapy, time elapsed prior to first dose of lenalidomide:

  • 2 weeks for local palliative radiation therapy (XRT)
  • 8 weeks if prior craniospinal chemoradiation therapy (CRT) or if ≥ 50% radiation of pelvis.
  • 6 weeks if other bone marrow radiation has been administered.

10. Graft-versus-host disease criteria:

  •  Subject must be at least 2 months (from first dose of lenalidomide) from stem cell infusion.
  • Subject must have no evidence of active acute or chronic GVHD (Grade 0) for 4 weeks prior to the first dose of lenalidomide.
  • Physiologic dosing of hydrocortisone is permitted.

11. At least 4 weeks (from first dose) elapsed from donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) without


12. Subject has adequate renal function, which is defined as:

  • Creatinine clearance calculated using the Schwartz formula or radioisotope glomerular filtration rate (GFR) > 70 mL/min/1.73 m2.

13. Subject has adequate liver function, which is defined as:

  • Total bilirubin is ≤ 2 mg/dL unless the increase in bilirubin is attributable to Gilbert’s Syndrome
  • AST/ALT is ≤ 3.0 x upper normal limit (ULN) for age

14. Female Children of Childbearing Potential, Female of Childbearing Potential and male subjects that have reached puberty must agree to undergo physician-approved reproductive education and discuss the side effects of the study therapy on reproduction with parent(s) and/or guardian(s).

15. All subjects and/or parents/guardians must have an understanding that lenalidomide could have a potential teratogenic risk. Female Children of Childbearing Potential, defined as females who have achieved menarche and/or breast development in Tanner Stage 2 or greater and have not undergone a hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy and FCBP defined as a sexually mature woman who has not undergone a hysterectomy or bilateral oophorectomy and has not been naturally postmenopausal for at least 24 consecutive months (ie, has had menses at any time in the preceding 24 consecutive months) must meet the following conditions below (Note: Amenorrhea following cancer therapy does not rule out childbearing potential):

  • Medically supervised serum pregnancy tests with a sensitivity of at least 25 mIU/mL must be conducted in FCCBP/FCBP, including those who commit to complete abstinence*. FCCBP/FCBP must have two pregnancy tests (with a minimum sensitivity of 25 mIU/mL) prior to starting treatment with lenalidomide. The first pregnancy test must be performed within 10 – 14 days prior to the start of lenalidomide treatment and the second pregnancy test must be performed within 24 hours prior to starting treatment with lenalidomide. The subject may not receive IP until the Investigator has verified that the results of these pregnancy tests performed on Cycle 1 Day 1 are negative. FCCBP/FCBP with regular or no menstrual cycles must agree to have pregnancy tests weekly for the first 28 days of study participation and then every 28 days while on study, at study Treatment Discontinuation Visit, and at Day 28 following IP discontinuation. If menstrual cycles are irregular, the pregnancy testing must occur weekly for the first 28 days and then every 14 days while on study, at study Treatment Discontinuation Visit, and at Days 14 and 28 following IP discontinuation.
    • ​Note: The pregnancy test 10 to 14 days prior to initiation of therapy may be omitted for patients requiring immediate treatment with lenalidomide. 
  • Female subjects must, as appropriate to age and at the discretion of the study Investigator, either commit to true abstinence* from heterosexual contact (which must be reviewed on a monthly basis) and/or agree to the use of two reliable forms of approved and effective contraceptive methods simultaneously. The two methods of reliable contraception must include one highly effective method and one additional effective (barrier) method (oral, injectable, or implantable hormonal contraceptive; tubal ligation; intra-uterine device; barrier contraceptive with spermicide; or vasectomized partner) without interruption, 28 days prior to starting lenalidomide treatment, throughout the entire duration of study treatment including dose interruptions and 28 days after the end of study treatment.
  • All male and female subjects must follow all requirements defined in the Pregnancy Prevention Program.

16. Male subjects, as appropriate to age and the discretion of the study physician:

  • Must practice true abstinence* or agree to use a condom during sexual contact with a pregnant female or a female of childbearing potential while participating in the study, during dose interruptions and for at least 28 days following lenalidomide discontinuation, even if he has undergone a successful vasectomy or practices complete abstinence.

*True abstinence is acceptable when this is in line with the preferred and usual lifestyle of the subject. [Periodic abstinence (eg, calendar, ovulation, symptothermal, post-ovulation methods) and withdrawal are not acceptable methods of contraception].

Optional Extension Phase Eligibility:

At the Investigator’s discretion and with approval of the Sponsor, subjects meeting all of the

following eligibility criteria are eligible to enter the Optional Extension Phase:

  • Subjects have received oral lenalidomide for 12 cycles and are continuing to have response or demonstrating clinical benefit from therapy as assessed by the Investigator without unacceptable toxicities.
  • Subjects who have signed the informed consent for the extension phase.
  • Subjects who do not meet any of the criteria for treatment discontinuation.
  • All subjects must be counseled about pregnancy precautions and risks of fetal exposure prior to the start of lenalidomide and during IP treatment and 28 days after last dose of IP. They must also be counseled against sharing IP and donating blood during and within 28 days of discontinuing IP.
  • For FCCBP/FCBP subjects, the pregnancy tests are negative when performed within 10-14 days and within 24 hours prior to the start of lenalidomide.

Subjects will start the extension study at the time of the next regularly scheduled dosing cycle.



Exclusion Criteria

The presence of any of the following will exclude a subject from enrollment:

1. Subject has Down syndrome.

2. Subject has French-American-British classification (FAB) type M3 leukemia (acute promyelocytic leukemia) or identification of t(15;17).

3. Subject has isolated CNS involvement or extramedullary relapse. (Subjects with combined CNS/marrow relapse may be enrolled).

4. Subject has had prior treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy within 2 weeks of the first dose of lenalidomide with the exception of hydroxyurea (allowed up to 24 hours prior to the first dose of lenalidomide) and intrathecal (IT) cytarabine will be administered within 2 weeks prior to administration of lenalidomide.

5. Subject has had prior treatment with biologic antineoplastic agents less than 7 days before the first dose of lenalidomide. For agents that have known AEs occurring beyond 7 days after administration (ie, monoclonal antibodies), this period must be extended beyond the time during which acute AEs are known to occur.

6. Subject has had prior treatment with lenalidomide.

7. Subject is pregnant or lactating.

8. Subject has an uncontrolled systemic fungal, bacterial, or viral infection (defined as ongoing signs/symptoms related to the infection without improvement despite appropriate antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and/or other treatment).

9. Subject has known Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positivity (subjects who are receiving antiretroviral therapy for HIV disease).

10. Subject has a prior history of malignancies other than AML unless the subject has been free of the disease for ≥ 5 years from first dose of lenalidomide.

11. The presence of any of the following will exclude a subject from enrollment:

  • Subject has any significant medical condition, laboratory abnormality, or psychiatric illness that would prevent the subject from participating in the study.
  • Subject has any condition including the presence of laboratory abnormalities, which places the subject at unacceptable risk if he/she were to participate in the study.
  • Subject has any condition that confounds the ability to interpret data from the study.

12. Subject has cardiac disorders (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [CTCAE] version 4.03 Grade 3 or 4).

13. Subject has a history of well-documented prior veno-occlusive disease (VOD).

14. Subject has any other organ dysfunction (CTCAE version 4.03 Grade 4) that will interfere with the administration of the therapy according to this protocol.