Principal Investigator: Scott Langenecker
Keywords: depression , prevention , rumination , compassion , absorption , brain , cognitive control , treatment , bias Department: Psychiatry-Psychologists
IRB Number: 00113733 Co Investigator: Katie Bessette
Specialty: Psychiatry, Child, Psychiatry, Child and Adolescent, Pediatrics, General, Psychiatry
Sub Specialties: Adolescent Medicine, Mood Disorders
Recruitment Status: Recruiting

Contact Information

Scott Langenecker
(801) 213-1200

Simple Summary

This study will evaluate whether a newer treatment, rumination-focused cognitive behavioral treatment, which includes mindfulness and can be used to reduce ruminative habits, change ways in which key brain regions interact with each other (e.g.., often called connectivity), and whether these changes in habits and brain connectivity can reduce the risk for recurrence of depression in the next two years.

Detailed Description

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a disease that has it's onset in childhood and early adolescence for many. Treatments in adolescence tend to be acute and short-term. Unfortunately, between half and three quarters of adolescents who have a first episode of MDD will go to have a second episode within the next two years. Studies in adults suggest that maintenance treatments or preventative treatments can lower these risks and delay or stop recurrences.The present study will use a preventative strategy, rumination-focused CBT (RF-CBT) to delay or stop the onset of another MD episode for at least two years.For the first 2 years of the study, adolescents with a history of MDD who are currently well will be randomly selected for either treatment as usual with RF-CBT or just treatment as usual in the first two years of the study.In the last 3 years of the study, these adolescents will be randomized to either RF-CBT or Relaxation Therapy above and beyond TAU. Brain, cognitive, and self-report measurements are collected before during and after the intervention to evaluate what brain and rumination changes occur, and which adolescents benefit the most from the treatment.What will happen.We determine if you/your child is eligible (see criteria below for 14-17 year olds with history of MDD)We complete pre-intervention assessments that includebrain imagingtests of cognitive skills and emotion processing, including ruminationquestionnaires about how the adolescent thinks and responds to situations, similar questionnaires in at least one parent/guardianmeasurement of sleep using a handheld wristwatch (called an actigraph - optional).randomization (chance assignment) in years 1-2 to either rumination focused cognitive behavioral therapy (RF-CBT) or assessment only for a 10-session intervention. Treatment as usual continues for all adolescents. In years 3-5, chance assignment if to RF-CBT or Relaxation Therapy.repeat assessments after the intervention period. The cognitive skills and emotion processing are also assessed during the middle of the intervention period.brain imagingtests of cognitive skills and emotion processing, including ruminationquestionnaires about how the adolescent thinks and responds to situations, similar questionnaires in at least one parent/guardianmeasurement of sleep using a handheld wristwatch (called an actigraph - optional).follow-up assessments to determine any changes, recurrence of depression, new treatments for the next two years.questionnairesinterviews

Inclusion Criteria

  • Previous diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (full or partial remission for at least two weeks) according to DSM-V criteria confirmed by the KSADS-PL.  Partial remission is defined as not meeting full DSM-V criteria for MDD.
  • RRS score above the age and sex specific mean, T > 50. 
  • 14-17 years of age at enrollment (accounting for 2 year follow-up)
  • Post-pubertal (Petersen Pubertal Developmental Scale)
  • Youth assent and parent consent
  • IQ > 75, determined by Synonyms Knowledge neuropsychological test (> 34 raw score).

Exclusion Criteria

·       Endorsement of suicidality with severe plan or intent (assessed via KSADS-PL, CDRS-R clinical interviews and L-SASI). Severe attempt, intent or plan is characterized by: active ideation with means and intent to carry out plan, and/or psychiatric inpatient admissions, ER visit, or similar due to plan or attempt. Current or past (within previous six months) plan or intent is exclusionary.

·       Lifetime history of conduct disorder, autism, any psychotic disorder (or episode unexplained by other known medical causes), or bipolar disorder. Eating disorder or alcohol/substance abuse within the previous 6 months. (Lifetime history of an anxiety disorder, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder or oppositional defiant disorder, non-specific eating disorders, ADHD will not be exclusionary).

·       Current treatment with RF-CBT, CBT, or variants thereof, or in the last 1 year. Likewise, detail oriented therapy beyond supportive therapy (e.g., homework, cognitive restructuring), in same time window (ability to recall elements of structured therapies with CBT focus).

·       Metal braces, tattoos with metal, or clothing with metal fibers. Permanent retainers are okay, they are safe for MRI, do not severely distort images.

·       Claustrophobia

·       Current pregnancy – Parents will be asked this information at the phone screen. At the clinic eligibility visit, female participants will be asked about sexual activity in a private room separate from their parents using the pregnancy script/screen that we have created. This script details that if a female is ineligible due to pregnancy or inadequate birth control, this information will not be disclosed to her parent(s). Participants who are sexually active will be asked about birth control method. Abstinence will be considered an approved form of contraception.

·       Psychotropic medication outside of antidepressants such as mood stabilizers and antipsychotics will be exclusionary, unless they are prescribed for depression and anxiety. Often antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and antiepileptics are prescribed as augmentation for MDD and will not be exclusionary unless MDD w psychosis, bipolar disorders or psychotic disorders are suspected. Participants may have a history of current, stable antidepressant or other psychotropic medications prescribed for MDD, with no changes in dose for the past four weeks, no change in specific medication for six weeks.

         -A previous diagnosis of a neurological disorder that was treated by a neurologist

Participant Reimbursement

Compensation includes payment for visits, to the adolescent and to the parents, including travel costs.