Principal Investigator: Gerald Cochran
Keywords: Opioid Use Disorder , Pregnancy , Buprenorphine , Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome , Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome , Post-partum Department: Epidemiology
IRB Number: 00122513 Co Investigator: Marcela Smid
Specialty: Psychiatry, OB/Gyn, General, Maternal-Fetal Medicine
Sub Specialties: Addiction Psychiatry, General Obstetrics,
Recruitment Status: Recruiting

Contact Information

Grace Humiston

Brief Summary

Primary Objective: To evaluate the impact of treating opioid use disorder (OUD) in pregnant women with extended-release (XR) buprenorphine (BUP), compared to sublingual (SL) BUP, on mother and infant outcomes. Hypothesized outcomes are that the BUP-XR, relative to  the BUP-SL, group will: 1) not have greater illicit opioid use during pregnancy (primary, non-inferiority); 2) have lower infant neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) severity (key secondary, superiority); and 3) not have greater postpartum illicit opioid use (key secondary, non-inferiority).

Inclusion Criteria

Potential participants must:

  1. be 18-41 years of age
  2. be pregnant with an estimated gestational age (EGA) of 6 - 30 weeks at randomization, has evidence of a viable intrauterine pregnancy if EGA < 12 weeks and is not planning to terminate the pregnancy
  3. have a single fetus pregnancy (can be based on self-report if an objective assessment is unavailable)
  4. meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 criteria for moderate/severe OUD and be a good candidate for BUP maintenance and/or be currently prescribed BUP for the treatment of OUD
  5. be willing to be randomized to BUP-XR or BUP-SL and to comply with study procedures, including weekly Medication Check Visits
  6. be planning to deliver at one of the hospitals for which the BORN survey was completed and that: a) has a written protocol for the management of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) / neonatal withdrawal syndrome (NOWS), b) offers rooming-in while infants are being observed for NAS/NOWS; and c) does not send infants home on opioids for the treatment of NAS/NOWS
  7. be enrolled in outpatient addiction treatment at a participating site (e.g., have completed intake)
  8. be able to understand the study, and having understood, provide written informed consent in English
  9. Neonates of currently enrolled women and who have given parental permission
  10. If a woman becomes incarcerated following informed consent and screening, data will continue to be collected. Women who are incarcerated will not be approached for consent and screening.

Exclusion Criteria

Potential participants must not:

  1. have a physiological dependence on alcohol or sedatives requiring medical detoxification

  2. have a psychiatric condition that, in the judgment of the site medical clinician (MC), would make study participation unsafe or which would make treatment compliance difficult. Examples include:

    • Suicidal or homicidal ideation requiring immediate attention

    • Severe, inadequately-treated mental health disorder (e.g., active psychosis, uncontrolled bipolar disorder)

  3. have a medical condition that, in the judgment of the study MC, would make study participation unsafe or which would make treatment compliance difficult. Medical conditions that may compromise participant safety or study conduct include, but are not limited to, allergy/sensitivity to study medications and the following based on clinical labs:

    • aspartate aminotransferase (AST) / alanine aminotransferase (ALT) greater than 5X upper limit of normal
    • serum creatinine greater than 1.5X upper limit of normal
    • total bilirubin greater than 1.5X upper limit of normal
  4. be currently in jail, prison or any inpatient overnight facility as required by court of law or have pending legal action or other situation (e.g., unstable living arrangements) that, in the judgement of the site investigator, could prevent participation in the study or in any study activities;
  5. be currently receiving methadone or naltrexone for the treatment of OUD;
  6. be enrolled in or planning to enroll in treatment beyond the level of 3.1 (clinically managed low-intensity residential services) of the American Society of Addiction Medicine criteria
  7. be enrolled in or planning to enroll in: a) a trial testing medication for managing OUD during pregnancy; b) research testing an intervention for substance use disorder or NOWS in their infant unless they are willing to provide a release for the research records.