Health Information


  • Airway Obstruction: Prevention

    Because most accidental child strangulations, chokings, and suffocations happen in the home, it's important to carefully childproof your residence.

  • Allergies

    Detailed information on allergies in children, including information on allergic rhinitis and food allergies

  • Bites and Stings: Animals

    Detailed information on animal bites and stings

  • Antibiotics

    Detailed information on the use of antibiotics and children

  • Urinary Incontinence (Enuresis) in Children

    In children under age 3, it’s normal to not have full bladder control. As children get older, they become more able to control their bladder. When wetting happens in a child who is old enough to control his or her bladder, it’s known as enuresis.

  • Birthmarks in Infants

    Your baby may not have been delivered by stork, but some infants are left with “stork bites” on the backs of their necks. These pink or red patches are just one type of birthmark or variation in skin color that are common in babies.

  • Breastfeeding

    Detailed information on getting stared with breastfeeding and the first weeks of breastfeeding

  • Care of Children's Mouth and Teeth

    Most children should begin regular dental care by the time they turn 1 year old.

  • Common Childhood Illnesses and Concerns

    Detailed information on common childhood illnesses and concerns

  • Dental Health

    Detailed information on dental health for children

  • Ear, Nose, and Throat Conditions

    Detailed information on ear, nose, and throat conditions in children

  • Eye Conditions

    Detailed information on eye conditions in children

  • Eye Injury (Black Eye)

    Detailed information on ecchymosis or bruising of the eye

  • Firearms Safety

    Detailed information on firearm safety and prevention

  • First-Aid Kit

    Detailed list of recommended items for a household first-aid kit

  • Gastrointestinal Conditions

    Detailed information on gastrointestinal conditions in children

  • Genitourinary Conditions

    Detailed information on genital and urinary conditions in children

  • Your Child's Growth and Development

    Detailed information on growth and development of children

  • Healthy Child Lifestyles

    Detailed information on healthy child lifestyles, including information on dental health, nutrition, vision, speech, hearing, sleep, toilet-training, and discipline

  • Home Page - Pediatrics

    Detailed information on common childhood illnesses and concerns

  • Infections

    Detailed information on infections in children

  • Bites and Stings: Insects

    Detailed information on insect bites, including bee stings, flea bites, mite bites, chigger bites, spider bites, tick bites, and lyme disease

  • Mental Health Conditions

    Detailed information on mental health disorders in children

  • Motor Vehicle Safety for Children

    Detailed information on motor vehicle safety and children

  • Neurological Conditions

    Detailed information on neurological disorders in children, including headaches, head injury and seizures/epilepsy

  • Online Resources - Pediatrics

    List of online resources to find additional information on pediatrics

  • Orthopedic Conditions

    Detailed information on orthopedic disorders in children, including fractures, sports injuries, overuse injuries, sprains, strains, and heat-related illness

  • Pediatrician

    You take your kids to the pediatrician for tummy aches and fevers, but a pediatrician does a lot more than care for sick children. He or she is responsible for your child’s physical, mental, and emotional well-being—in sickness and in health.

  • Poisoning

    Sometimes accidental poisonings can be treated in the home by following the directions from a poison control center or your child's doctor.

  • Respiratory Conditions

    Detailed information on respiratory conditions in children, including asthma, croup, the common cold, and the flu

  • Safety and Injury Prevention for Children
  • Topic Index - Pediatrics

    Detailed information on common childhood illnesses and concerns

  • Skin Conditions

    Detailed information on skin conditions in children, including acne, birthmarks, bites, stings, blisters, burns, contact dermatitis, cradle cap (seborrheic dermatitis), diaper rash, impetigo, lice, poison ivy, poison oak, sunburn, and warts

  • Stye

    A stye is a tender red bump on the edge of your eyelid.

  • Vision, Hearing, and Speech Milestones

    Detailed information on a child's vision, hearing, and speech milestones

  • Vision Milestones

    Detailed information on a child's vision milestones

  • Well-Care Visits

    Detailed information on well-care visits and children, including when well-care visits should be scheduled

  • Vision, Hearing and Speech Overview

    Vision, hearing, and speech are an important part of your child's life. When an infant is born, his or her eyesight is immature. The infant later develops the ability to focus. Hearing appears early in fetal development and is necessary for proper progression of speech and language. Monitoring your child's ability to see, hear, and speak is an important part of the health of your growing child.

  • Cradle Cap

    Cradle cap (infant seborrheic dermatitis) is scaly patches on a baby's scalp. Cradle cap isn’t serious, but it can cause thick crusting and white or yellow scales. Some babies can also have seborrheic dermatitis in the diaper area, and on the face, neck, and trunk. Cradle cap usually clears up within the first year.

  • Age-Appropriate Speech and Language Milestones

    Here are guidelines on speech and language development that may help you decide if your child is experiencing hearing problems.

  • Infant Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

    Detailed information on infant problems of the teeth and mouth

  • Swimmer’s Ear in Children

    Swimmer’s ear (otitis externa) is an inflammation of the external ear canal. Swimmer’s ear is caused by fungi or bacteria. Water that stays in the ear canal during swimming, for example, may let bacteria and fungi grow.

  • Temper Tantrums

    These fits of rage—the stomping, screaming, and falling on the floor—are a normal part of childhood development. Temper tantrums often happen only with a parent. They are a way for the child to communicate his or her feelings.

  • Measuring a Baby's Temperature

    Most healthcare providers recommend taking a baby's temperature rectally, by placing a thermometer in the baby's anus. This method is accurate and gives a quick reading of the baby's internal temperature.

  • The Growing Child: 3-Year-Olds

    Most 3-year-olds have lost the rounded tummy of a toddler. Your child can use a spoon well and can wash and dry his or her hands.

  • Thumb Sucking

    Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children. It shouldn't cause any permanent problems if your child stops by age 5.

  • Time-Out

    Time-out is a type of discipline that is used to stop bad behavior in a child. It takes the child out of the situation and gives him or her time to calm down.

  • Toilet Training

    Toilet training should begin when the child shows signs that he or she is ready. There is no right age to begin.

  • Warts in Children

    Warts on the skin are harmless growths. They are caused by a virus. Warts can spread to other parts of the body and to other people.

  • Diaper Dermatitis in Children

    Diaper dermatitis is inflammation of the skin in the diaper area. It’s a very common condition in babies and toddlers.

  • Colic

    Colic is when a healthy baby cries for a very long time, for no obvious reason. It is a common problem that affects some babies during the first 3 to 4 months of life.

  • Fever in Children

    When your child has a fever, the body resets its thermostat at a higher temperature. This helps the body fight off invading microorganisms.

  • Disciplining Your Child at Any Age

    Each child is different, but most children need to be given clear rules about behavior.

  • Headaches in Children

    Many headaches in children may be caused by tight muscles and dilated blood vessels in the head. Other headaches may be caused by an actual problem, such as a tumor or malformation of the brain, although this is much less common.

  • Age-Appropriate Speech and Hearing Milestones

    A hearing problem may be suspected in a child who is not responding to sounds or who is not developing language skills appropriately.

  • Inguinal and Umbilical Hernias in Children

    A hernia is when a part of the intestine pushes through a weak spot in the belly (abdominal) muscles. The hernia creates a soft lump or bulge under the skin.

  • Influenza (Flu) in Children

    Influenza (flu) is a very contagious viral infection that affects the air passages of the lungs. It causes a high fever, body aches, a cough, and other symptoms.

  • Home Page - Dental and Oral Health

    Detailed information on dental and oral health in children

  • Lying and Stealing

    Lying and stealing are common, but inappropriate, behaviors in school-aged children. Most of the time these behaviors will be outgrown.

  • Nightmares and Night Terrors

    A night terror is a partial waking from sleep with behaviors such as screaming, kicking, panic, sleep walking, thrashing, or mumbling.

  • Orthodontics/Braces for Children

    Orthodontics is the dental specialty that focuses on the development, prevention, and correction of irregularities of the teeth, bite, and jaws.

  • Overuse Injuries

    Detailed information on overuse injuries in children, including jumper's knee, patellar tendonitis, little leaguers' elbow, little leaguers' shoulder, osteochondritis dissecans, Sever's disease, shin splints, Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease, spondylolisthesis, and spondylolysis

  • Poison Ivy Rash in Children

    Poison ivy rash is an allergic reaction to poison ivy. Poison ivy is very common plant in the U.S. It is similar to two other plants called poison oak and poison sumac. The plants cause allergic dermatitis.

  • GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) in Children

    GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a long-term (chronic) digestive disorder. It happens when stomach contents flow back up (reflux) into the food pipe (esophagus).

  • Allergic Rhinitis in Children

    Rhinitis is a reaction that happens in the eyes, nose, and throat when allergens in the air trigger the release of histamine in the body. Histamine causes itching, swelling, and fluid to build up in the fragile linings of nasal passages, sinuses, and eyelids.

  • Anatomy and Development of the Mouth and Teeth

    Children's teeth begin developing in the fetus. Good nutrition from the mother during pregnancy is important in the development of the teeth.

  • Asthma in Children

    Asthma is a long-term (chronic) lung disease that causes your child's airways to become sensitive to certain things (triggers).

  • Chickenpox

    Chickenpox is a common childhood disease that causes an itchy, blistering rash and is easily spread to others.

  • Circumcision

    Whether you decided to have your baby boy circumcised or not, it’s important to know how to care for his special needs. Find tips for caring for both circumcised and uncircumcised babies.

  • Diarrhea in Children

    Diarrhea is a common problem. It may last 1 or 2 days and go away on its own. If diarrhea lasts more than 2 days, your child may have a more serious problem.

  • Blisters in Children

    Detailed information on blisters, including cause, first aid, and treatment.

  • Croup

    Croup is most common in children younger than 5, with the peak age around 2. Croup occurs most often in winter.

  • Acne in Children

    Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Hair follicles are the areas around the base or root of each hair. Sebaceous glands are the tiny glands that release oil (sebum) into the hair follicles. The sebum moistens the skin and hair. The sebum and hair get to the skin surface through tiny holes called pores.

  • Discipline

    Detailed information on disciplining a child, including information on time-out, temper tantrum, lying, stealing, and television and children

  • Eating Disorders in Children

    Detailed information on adolescents and eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and obesity

  • Fifth Disease in Children

    Fifth disease is a viral illness that causes a rash. It occurs most often in the winter and spring.

  • Constipation in Children

    Constipation is when a child has very hard stools, and has fewer bowel movements than he or she normally does. It is a very common GI (gastrointestinal) problem.

  • Common Cold (Upper Respiratory Infection)

    The common cold is one of the most common illnesses, leading to more doctor visits and missed days from school and work each year than any other illness.

  • Childhood Immunizations

    Your little one will need several immunization shots to help protect her from several childhood diseases, some of which can be deadly. Knowing which shots she needs, when, and what to do in the event of a minor reaction is important.

  • Impetigo in Children

    Impetigo is an infection of the skin. When it affects just the surface, it’s called superficial impetigo. Impetigo can also affect deeper parts of the skin. This is called ecthyma. It may occur on healthy skin. Or it may occur where the skin was injured by a cut, scrape, or insect bite.

  • Head Injury in Children

    The more common causes of head injury in children are falls, motor vehicle accidents—in which the child is either a passenger or a pedestrian—or a result of child abuse.

  • Healthy Sleep Habits

    The normal amount of sleep varies depending on the age of your child. A 2-year-old needs 10 to 12 hours a night, plus naps during the day. By age 6, a child usually has dropped naps, but still needs 10 hours at night.

  • Heat-Related Illnesses (Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke)

    Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.

  • Learning Disorders

    Learning disorders are sometimes called learning disabilities. Most children with learning disorders have normal intelligence, but they have difficulty with reading, math, or another academic area.

  • Nosebleeds

    Nosebleeds are fairly common in children, especially in dry climates or during the winter months, when dry heat inside homes and buildings can cause drying, cracking, or crusting inside the nose.

  • Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis in Children

    Pharyngitis is redness, pain, and swelling of the throat (pharynx). Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils. The tonsils are a pair of tissue masses on either side of the back of the throat. They are part of the immune system, the part of the body that fights infection and other disease.

  • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children

    ADHD is a behavior disorder marked by inattention, impulsivity, and, in some cases, hyperactivity.

  • Food Allergies in Children

    A food allergy is when your child’s body has a bad immune reaction to a certain food. This is different than a food intolerance which does not affect the immune system. This is true even though some of the same signs may be present.

  • Fractures

    A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone.

  • Bites and Stings

    Detailed information on insect bites, including bee stings, flea bites, mite bites, chigger bites, spider bites, tick bites, and lyme disease

  • Burns in Children

    Detailed information on burns, burn types, classification of burns, and burn treatment

  • Roseola in Children

    Roseola is a contagious viral illness. It causes a high fever and then a rash that develops as the fever goes away.

  • Epilepsy and Seizures in Children

    Epilepsy is a brain condition that causes a child to have seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system.

  • Sinusitis in Children

    Sinusitis is an infection of the sinuses. These infections usually happen after a cold or with allergies. There are 3 types of sinusitis: short term (acute), long-term (acute), and recurrent.

  • Sleep

    Detailed information on healthy sleep habits of children, including information on nightmares and night terrors

  • Sports Injuries and Children

    Detailed information on sports injuries in children, including overuse injuries, sprains, strains, and heat-related illnesses

  • Sports Safety for Children

    Because they are still growing, children are more susceptible to sports injuries. Half of those injuries could be prevented with proper safety gear, safer playing environments, and established safety rules.

  • Sprains and Strains in Children

    Sprains and strains are types of injuries. A sprain is an injury to a ligament while a strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon.

  • The Growing Child: 1 to 3 Months

    At this stage of growth, your baby will gain 1-1/2 to 2 pounds in weight and more than an inch in height each month.

  • The Growing Child: 10 to 12 Months

    Your child now says da-da and ma-ma, and possibly 2 other words, as well. He or she can also make a simple gesture, such as shaking the head.

  • The Growing Child: 1-Year-Olds

    Your child is a toddler now and very active! He or she can climb stairs while holding on and play with push and pull toys.

  • The Growing Child: 2-Year-Olds

    Speech at this age is becoming clearer. Your child has a vocabulary of 200 to 300 words and can tell his or her age and name.

  • The Growing Child: 4 to 6 Months

    This age is very social, and babies begin moving in much more purposeful ways.

  • The Growing Child: 7 to 9 Months

    A baby of this age rolls over easily from front to back and back to front, and bounces when supported to stand.

  • The Growing Child: Adolescent (13 to 18 Years)

    Adolescence is a time for growth spurts and puberty changes. Sexual maturation may happen gradually or several signs may become visible at the same time.

  • The Growing Child: Newborn

    In the first month of life, babies usually catch up and surpass their birthweight, then steadily continue to gain weight.

  • The Growing Child: Preschool (4 to 5 Years)

    Children at this age begin to understand concepts and can compare abstract ideas.

  • The Growing Child: School-Age (6 to 12 Years)

    Although friendships become more important at this age, children are still fond of their parents and like being part of a family.

  • Tooth Decay in Children

    Tooth decay is the breakdown of tooth enamel. Enamel is the hard outer surface of a tooth. Tooth decay can lead to cavities (caries). These are holes in the teeth.

  • Sunburn

    Detailed information on sunburn, including symptoms, treatment, and prevention.

  • Toy Safety

    Detailed information on toy safety and injury prevention in children

  • Teething

    A baby's first tooth usually appears between 5 and 7 months of age. Often, the two middle bottom teeth come through the gums first, followed by the middle four upper teeth.

  • Television and Children

    TV programs can be educational, but many children watch too much television. TV may also show children behavior that you do not want them to imitate.

  • For Parents: Bicycle, In-Line Skating, Skateboard, and Scooter Safety

    Detailed information on bicycle, in-line skating, skateboarding, and scooter safety

  • Bulimia Nervosa in Adolescents

    Bulimia nervosa is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing) usually followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives, enemas, or medications in an attempt to control weight.

  • Household Safety Checklist

    Use this list as part of a thorough safety check of your home. It can help prevent accidents and injuries.

  • Nutrition Index

    Detailed nutrition information for mothers who are breastfeeding or bottle-feeding, and toddlers, preschool-aged children, school-aged children, and adolescents

  • Anorexia Nervosa

    Anorexia nervosa (or simply anorexia) is an eating disorder that causes people to obsess about their weight and food. People who suffer with this behavior problem have a distorted body image and see themselves as overweight even when their weight is dangerously low. 

  • Infectious Mononucleosis

    Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by swollen lymph glands, fever, sore throat, and chronic fatigue.

  • Preschooler Nutrition

    Preschool children are still developing their eating habits and need encouragement to eat healthy meals and snacks.

  • Healthy Eating During Adolescence

    Encourage your teen to eat three balanced meals a day, with fruits or vegetables as snacks.

  • School-Aged Child Nutrition

    Eating healthy after-school snacks is important at this age, as these snacks may contribute up to one-third of the total calorie intake for the day.

  • Toddler Nutrition

    Mealtime with a toddler can be challenging, because children at this age are striving for independence and control. It's best to provide structure and set limits.

  • Bottle-Feeding

    Detailed information on bottle-feeding, including information on the different types of baby formulas.

  • Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Detailed information on urinary tract infections, including causes, symptom, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

  • Breastfeeding Chart