Health Information

Women's Health

  • Exercise

    Exercise doesn't have to be vigorous to offer health benefits. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily, or on most days of the week.

  • Patellar Tendonitis (Jumper's Knee)

    Jumper’s knee is caused by overuse of your knee joint, such as frequent jumping on hard surfaces. It’s usually a sports-related injury, linked to leg muscle contraction and the force of hitting the ground.

  • Preventing Sports Injuries

    Good preventive steps: Warm up before you work out, alternate days for exercising certain muscle groups, and cool down when you're done.

  • Obesity Treatment Overview

    Whatever treatment plan a person follows, losing weight slowly will be more effective and healthy over the long term.

  • Medical Treatment for Obesity

    Medical treatment can help with weight loss if your own efforts are unsuccessful—or if you have a medical condition that makes it crucial to lose weight.

  • Gastric Restrictive Surgery

    Gastric restrictive surgery is a type of bariatric surgery or weight loss surgery. It limits the amount of food you can eat. This surgery may be used to treat severe obesity when diet, exercise, and medication have failed.

  • Maintaining Weight Loss

    Keeping extra weight off requires effort and commitment, just as losing weight does.

  • Preventing Obesity

    Given the chronic diseases and conditions associated with obesity and the fact that obesity is difficult to treat, prevention is extremely important.

  • Anatomy of the Breasts

    Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes), which are arranged like the petals of a daisy. Each lobe has many smaller lobules, which end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk.

  • Bone Density Test

    A bone density test measures the strength and density of your bones as you approach menopause and, when the test is repeated sometime later, can help determine how quickly you are losing bone mass and density.

  • Breast Health

    Detailed information on breast health, including anatomy of the breast, normal breast development, breast cancer prevention, breast self-examination, mammography, breast conditions, mastalgia (breast pain), breast lump, fibrocystic breast changes, nipple

  • Women's Health Care Guidelines

    Get regular checkups, preventive examinations, and immunizations. Learn about disease prevention and ask your physician for specific information regarding your needs.

  • Colorectal Cancer

    Most people who have colorectal cancer are older than 50. This type of cancer is also associated with a diet high in fat and calories and low in fiber.

  • Components of Food

    When trying to make heart-healthy changes to your lifestyle and diet, it is helpful to know some basics about nutrition.

  • Contraception/Birth Control

    You have a lot of options when it comes to birth control. Some methods don't require a doctor's visit, but others, like oral contraceptives, are available only by prescription.

  • Cervicitis

    Cervicitis is irritation or infection of the cervix. It can be caused by a number of different sexually transmitted diseases.

  • Menstrual Cycle: An Overview

    A woman is generally most fertile (able to become pregnant) a few days before, during, and after ovulation.

  • Depression

    Depression is a whole-body illness. It involves the body, mood, and thoughts. Depression affects the way you eat and sleep. It also can affect the way you feel about yourself and things. It is not the same as being unhappy or in a “blue” mood. It is not a sign of personal weakness or a condition that can be willed or wished away. When you have depression, you can’t “pull yourself together” and get better. Treatment is often needed and many times crucial to recovery.

  • Diabetes (Type 1, 2, and Gestational)

    Detailed information on type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes, including causes, symptoms, complications, risk factors, and treatment

  • Diagnosing Benign (Noncancerous) Breast Conditions

    To diagnose a breast condition, your healthcare provider will examine your breasts and may order imaging tests or a biopsy.

  • Dysmenorrhea

    Dysmenorrhea causes severe cramps and pain during a woman's period. It can start with your first period, or begin later in life. It can be related to an underlying conditions such as endometriosis.

  • Endometriosis
    The tissue that lines the uterus is called the endometrium. Normally, if a woman doesn’t get pregnant, this tissue is shed each month during her period. In endometriosis, tissue that looks and acts like endometrial tissue implants outside the uterus.This can cause pain, heavy periods, and infertility.
  • Estrogen's Effects on the Female Body

    In addition to regulating the menstrual cycle, estrogen affects the reproductive tract, the urinary tract, the heart and blood vessels, bones, breasts, skin, hair, mucous membranes, pelvic muscles, and the brain.

  • Frequently Asked Questions: Mammograms

    Timing your mammogram when your breasts are not tender is important. In premenopausal women, this is usually 1 week after a menstrual period.

  • Gynecological Concerns

    Detailed information on the most common gynecological concerns, including sexually transmitted diseases, endometriosis, pelvic pain, menstrual conditions, premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, gynec

  • Anatomy of Female Pelvic Area

    The female pelvic area contains a number of organs and structures: the endometrium, uterus, ovaries, cervix, vagina, and vulva.

  • Recognizing Gynecological Symptoms

    Detailed information on recognizing a gynecological problem

  • Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    If you use or are considering using hormone therapy, discuss the possible benefits and risks with your health care provider.

  • Urinary Incontinence

    Urinary incontinence is the loss of urine control, or the inability to hold your urine until you can reach a bathroom.

  • Home Page - Women's Health

    Detailed information on healthcare for women, including information on breast health, colorectal cancer, diabetes, gynecological concerns, heart attack, hysterectomy, infertility, menopause, mental health, osteoporosis, skin cancer, and urinary conditions

  • Breast Infections and Inflammations

    The most common type of breast infection is lactational mastitis. This happens when a woman is breastfeeding. The nipples become cracked and sore, allowing bacteria from the baby's mouth to enter the ducts and rapidly multiply in the milk.

  • Gynecologic Inflammations and Infections

    Detailed information on the most common gynecological inflammations and infections, including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease

  • Infertility
    Infertility is a problem of the reproductive system. It impairs the body's ability to reproduce. It could be caused by a problem with the man’s system, the woman’s system, or both.
  • Infertility Risk Factors for Men and Women

    Age, chronic diseases, and endometriosis are common factors for women. For men, they are STDs, toxic substances at work, and cigarette smoking.

  • Interstitial Cystitis
    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is an inflamed or irritated bladder wall. It can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder. The bladder can’t hold as much urine as it did in the past. It is a chronic disorder.
  • Common Benign Lumps

    The two most common types of benign breast lumps are cysts and fibroadenomas. A cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops in the breast tissue. Fibroadenomas are solid, smooth, firm, benign lumps that are most commonly found in women in their late teens and early 20s.

  • Mammograms and Breast Health

    Detailed information on mammograms, including the different types, how a mammogram is done, and recommended screening guidelines

  • Manage Your Medications

    Detailed information on learning to manage your medication, especially if you are taking several, and treating different conditions

  • Menorrhagia

    Menorrhagia is the most common type of abnormal uterine bleeding. In some cases, bleeding may be so severe that it interrupts daily activities.

  • Mental Health

    Detailed information on mental health and women, including information on managing stress, depression, and domestic violence

  • Normal Breast Development and Changes

    Breast development happens in distinct stages, first before birth, and again at puberty and during the childbearing years. Changes also happen to the breasts during menstruation and when a woman reaches menopause.

  • Online Resources - Women's Health

    List of online resources to find additional information on women's health

  • Osteoporosis Index

    Detailed information on osteoporosis and bone density test

  • Pelvic Pain
    Pelvic pain is a challenging condition that can be due to many possible causes.
  • Planning a Pregnancy

    Planning ahead and taking care of yourself before becoming pregnant is the best thing you can do for you and your baby.

  • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a much more severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It may affect women who are able to get pregnant. It’s a severe and chronic medical condition that requires attention and treatment.  Lifestyle changes and sometimes medications can help manage symptoms.
  • Nipple Problems and Discharge

    Nipple conditions are a common benign breast condition affecting many women. Some problems are related to lactation, and others are not.

  • Health Promotion and Prevention

    Detailed information on health promotion and disease prevention for women, including information on breast health, breast cancer prevention, breast self-examination, mammography, birth control, pap test, preconception care, heart disease prevention, safer

  • Safer Sex Guidelines

    The only safe sex is no sex, most health care providers say. But certain precautions and safe behaviors can minimize a person's risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease.

  • Topic Index - Women's Health

    Detailed information on healthcare for women, including information on breast health, colorectal cancer, diabetes, gynecological concerns, heart attack, hysterectomy, infertility, menopause, mental health, osteoporosis, skin cancer, and urinary conditions

  • Managing Stress

    A nutritious, well-balanced diet and exercise can keep your body fit and able to resist disease, and exercise is an excellent way to elevate your mood.

  • Urinary Tract Infections or UTIs
    Urinary tract infections or UTIs are infections in any part of the urinary tract. They are a common health problem that affects millions of people each year. Women are especially prone to UTIs.
  • Urinary Conditions

    Detailed information on the most common urinary conditions for women, including urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and interstitial cystitis

  • Anatomy of the Urinary System

    Detailed anatomical description of the urinary system, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations

  • Vaginitis

    Vaginitis is a common problem for women of all ages. Bacteria, yeast, viruses, and chemicals in creams or sprays can cause it.

  • Domestic Violence

    Abuse often begins with verbal behaviors such as name-calling, threats, and hitting or throwing objects. It can become worse, including pushing, slapping, and holding against the victim's will.

  • Vulvitis
    Vulvitis is inflammation of the soft folds of skin outside the vagina.
  • Watch Your Weight

    If your weight is not in the healthy range for your height and build, the best way to lose weight is to set a reasonable goal and lose it slowly and gradually.

  • Metabolic Syndrome

    Metabolic syndrome is a condition that includes the presence of a cluster of risk factors specific for cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome significantly raises the risk of developing diabetes, heart disease, and/or stroke.

  • Runner’s Knee
    Runner's knee means that you have dull pain around the front of the knee (patella). This is where the knee connects with the lower end of the thighbone (femur).
  • Shin Splints
    Shin splints refers to pain and tenderness along or just behind the large bone in the lower leg (the tibia).
  • Stress Fractures

    Stress fractures are weak spots or small cracks in the bone caused by continuous overuse. They often occur in the foot after training for basketball, running, and other sports.

  • Common Breast Conditions

    Detailed information on the most common breast conditions, including mastalgia (breast pain), benign breast lumps, fibrocystic breast changes, nipple problems, nipple discharge, breast infections, and breast inflammation

  • Introduction to Menopause

    When a woman permanently stops having menstrual periods, she has reached the stage of life called menopause. This stage signals the end of a woman's ability to have children.

  • Amenorrhea

    Amenorrhea means you haven't had your period for more than 3 cycles. It can be caused by a variety of things including overexercising, being overweight, or due to an ovulation problem.

  • Exercise and the Aging Person

    Exercise is good for people of all ages. It helps lower blood pressure, reduces the risks for falls and serious injuries, and slows the body's loss of muscle and bone mass.

  • Fibrocystic Breast Changes

    Fibrocystic breast changes are symptoms you may feel in your breasts right before your period. Learn what these common symptoms feel like, what causes them--and how to care for your breasts with breast self-awareness.

  • Gastric Bypass (Malabsorptive) Surgery Procedure
    Gastric bypass surgery, a type of bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery), is a procedure that alters the process of digestion. Bariatric surgery is the only option today that effectively treats morbid obesity in people for whom more conservative measures such as diet, exercise, and medication have not been effective.
  • Hysterectomy

    Hysterectomy is surgery to remove the uterus. Your healthcare provider may also remove one or both ovaries, and the fallopian tubes. In some cases, he or she may remove other parts of the reproductive system.

  • Mastalgia (Breast Pain)

    The most common type of breast pain is associated with the menstrual cycle and is nearly always hormonal.

  • Obesity

    Detailed information on obesity, including obesity causes, obesity health effects, obesity medical treatment, obesity surgical treatment, maintaining weight loss, and obesity prevention

  • Overview of Obesity

    Obesity is a serious, chronic disease that can inflict substantial harm to a person’s health. Learn about obesity causes and obesity health effects.

  • Overview of Sports Injuries
  • Pap Test

    A Pap test is a way for your doctor to examine cells collected from the cervix for infection, inflammation, or cancer.

  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
    PCOS is a common hormone problem in women of childbearing age. Women with PCOS may not ovulate, and have abnormal hormone levels. They may experience missed or irregular periods, excess hair growth and weight gain around the belly.
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
    Pelvic inflammatory disease or PID is an infection of a woman’s reproductive tract. Scar tissue grows between internal organs leading to ongoing pelvic pain. It can also lead to ectopic pregnancy.
  • Perimenopause
    Perimenopause is the time around menopause when your body begins to change. You become less fertile and hormone levels fluctuate.
  • Heart Attack

    A heart attack occurs when the blood supply is cut off from the heart muscle, usually because of a blood clot. Without blood and oxygen, the muscle cells are damaged and die.

  • Lumbar Strain

    A lumbar strain is an injury to the lower back, which results in damaged tendons and muscles that spasm and feel sore.

  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Women suffer more frequent and severe symptoms from STDs. Some STDs can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which can lead to both infertility and ectopic pregnancy.

  • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a group of emotional and physical symptoms many women have in the days before their period starts. Lifestyle changes and sometimes medicines can help manage symptoms.
  • Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: Introduction
  • Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases

    Living a healthier lifestyle can help prevent heart disease. Don't smoke, eat a heart-healthy diet, and get regular exercise.

  • Sports Injuries

    Many sports injuries can be prevented with proper conditioning and training, wearing appropriate protective gear, and using proper equipment.

  • Staying Healthy After Menopause

    Good nutrition and regular exercise can help you stay healthy and youthful at this stage of life.

  • Treatment of Obesity

    Detailed information on obesity treatment, including obesity medical treatment, obesity surgical treatment, obesity gastric bypass (malabsorptive) surgery, and obesity gastric stapling (restrictive) surgery

  • Surgical Treatment for Obesity

    Detailed information on obesity surgical treatment, including gastric bypass surgery, and gastric stapling surgery

  • Breast Health: 3-Step Plan for Preventive Care

    To monitor your breast health, you should do a monthly breast self-exam, get a year clinical exam, and get mammograms as directed by your doctor.

  • Breast Self-Awareness

    Your breasts change at different stages of your life. Breast self-awareness is knowing how your breasts normally look and feel. This can help you to find even small changes right away.

  • Food Intolerance After Gastric Band Surgery

    If you are severely obese, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) can help you lose at least half of your extra weight.

  • Adjustable Gastric Band: What Happens If You Don’t Follow Your New Diet

    Food intolerance means that after surgery you may have problems eating foods that you once ate or that are part of your new diet. This can make it hard to stick to your new diet and keep the pounds off.

  • Problems with Digesting Fat After Weight-Loss Surgery

    Certain types of weight-loss surgery change the way your body deals with the nutrients in the foods you eat. This causes a rapid amount of weight loss, but also may lead to complications.

  • Dumping Syndrome After Gastric Bypass Surgery

    Dumping syndrome is a problem for many people who have had gastric bypass surgery. It happens when the solid parts of a meal get “dumped” directly from the stomach into the small intestine without being digested. This can feel uncomfortable and may even lead to malnutrition if it isn’t treated.

  • Iron Deficiency After Gastric Bypass Surgery

    Iron deficiency and anemia are common after a gastric bypass or other weight-loss surgery, especially in women. In fact, iron deficiency can occur in more than half of women who are premenopausal who have this surgery.

  • Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Overview

    This surgery takes out the part of your stomach that curves outward, called the fundus. After the fundus is taken out, your surgeon will close the rest of your stomach into a tube shape that looks like a banana.

  • Risks of Gastric Bypass Surgery: Anastomotic Leaking

    One risk of gastric bypass surgery is that the anastomosis, the new connection created in your intestines during the bypass surgery, will leak. Leaking of digestive juices and partially digested food through an anastomosis is one of the most serious complications after bypass surgery.

  • Stomal (Anastomotic) Stenosis After Gastric Bypass Surgery

    After a gastric bypass procedure for weight loss, some people may develop a narrowing of the new connection between their stomach and lower intestine. This complication is called stomal stenosis, or anastomotic stenosis.

  • Afferent Loop Syndrome
    Afferent loop syndrome is a complication of certain types of stomach surgery.
  • Efferent Loop Syndrome

    Efferent loop syndrome is one of two "loop syndromes" that can occur after some types of gastric surgery. In a loop syndrome, a portion or "limb" of the small intestine becomes blocked.

  • Risks of Bariatric Surgery: Anemia

    Anemia is a condition in which your blood contains lower than normal levels of red blood cells or red blood cells that contain too little of the protein hemoglobin. It is a common complication of weight-loss surgery.

  • Blind Loop Syndrome

    In blind loop syndrome, food is not able to follow the normal digestive route. Instead, it bypasses a section of your intestine.

  • How Lifestyle and Medical History Affect Cancer Risk: Facts for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Gay and bisexual men are at higher risk of developing certain cancers, including lung, anal, skin, and prostate cancer.

  • Liposarcoma

    A liposarcoma is a rare type of cancer that develops in your fatty tissue. This type of tumor can grow anywhere in your body. Common places include your abdomen, thigh, and behind your knee.

  • Carcinoid Tumor

    Carcinoid tumor is a rare type of tumor that grows slowly.