Health Information

Ear, Nose, and Throat

  • Anatomy and Physiology of the Ear

    The main parts of the ear are the outer ear, the eardrum (tympanic membrane), the middle ear, and the inner ear.

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Detailed information on obstructive sleep apnea, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

  • Anatomy and Physiology of the Nose and Throat

    The sinuses are cavities, or air-filled pockets, near the nasal passage. They are lined with mucous membranes.

  • Branchial Cleft Abnormalities in Children

    A branchial cleft abnormality is a cluster of abnormally formed tissue in the neck. A branchial cleft abnormality is a birth defect. It happens when the area does not form as it should during the early stages of an embryo’s development.

  • Common Childhood External Ear Problems

    Detailed information on common childhood external ear problems

  • Common Childhood Nose and Throat Illnesses

    Detailed information on common childhood nose and throat problems in children

  • Congenital Laryngeal Stridor in Children

    Congenital laryngeal stridor is a noisy or high-pitched sound with breathing. It is from an abnormally formed voice box (larynx). It is present at birth (congenital).

  • Dermoid Cyst in Children

    A dermoid cyst is a pocket or hole under the skin. It contains tissue normally found in the outer layers of the skin. This might be hair follicles, oil, and sweat glands. Oil and sweat collect inside the cyst, causing it to get larger.

  • Ear Disorders

    Detailed information on ear disorders in children

  • Endoscopic Sinus Surgery in Children

    Endoscopic sinus surgery is a procedure to open the passages of the nose and sinuses. It is done to treat long-term (chronic) sinus infections. An ear, nose, and throat specialist (ENT) does the surgery.

  • Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose, and Airway

    Children usually place things in their ears because they are bored, curious, or copying other children. Some objects may cause no symptoms, but other objects, such as food and insects, may cause pain in the ear, redness, or drainage.

  • Hearing Loss in Children

    Sensorineural hearing loss involves the inner ear or its connection with the brain. Conductive hearing loss involves the middle or outer ear.

  • Types of Hearing Tests for Infants and Children

    One type of hearing screening test for newborns uses a tiny, flexible plug that is inserted into the baby's ear. The other type of test uses electrodes attached with adhesive to the baby's scalp.

  • Hearing Loss in Babies

    Hearing loss in babies is rare in this country, but when it does happen, it's important to diagnose it early. Undetected hearing loss can delay speech and language development.

  • Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children

    Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancing fluids in different parts of the body.

  • Hearing Aids for Children

    Hearing aids can help improve hearing and speech, especially in children with hearing loss in the inner ear caused by damaged hair cells or a damaged hearing nerve.

  • Hearing, Speech, and Language

    Detailed information on hearing, speech, and language in children

  • Home Page - Ear, Nose, and Throat

    Detailed information on ear, nose, and throat disorders in children

  • Lymphadenopathy in Children

    Lymphadenopathy is the term for swelling of the lymph nodes or glands. These are the bean-shaped glands in the neck, armpits, groin, chest, and abdomen. They act as filters for the lymph fluid as it flows through the body. Lymphadenopathy can occur in just one area of the body, such as the neck. Or it may affect lymph nodes throughout the body. The cervical lymph nodes, found in the neck, are the most common site of lymphadenopathy.

  • Lymphatic Malformations

    A lymphatic malformation  is a lymphatic vessel that isn’t formed right. The malformations are lymphatic tissue filled with fluid (cyst). Your child may have one or more of these cysts.

  • Lymphatic Masses

    Detailed information on lymphatic masses in children

  • The Lymphatic System

    Detailed anatomical information on the lymphatic system

  • Mastoiditis in Children

    Mastoiditis is an inflammation or infection of the mastoid bone. This bone is one of the bones in the head. It is located behind the ear. The mastoid bone is made of cells that drain the middle ear. Mastoiditis may be mild or very serious.

  • Management of Hearing Loss

    A child's hearing loss may be helped with hearing aids or cochlear implants. Training in sign language and lip reading is another option.

  • Tympanostomy Tubes

    Tympanostomy (ear) tubes are small tubes. They’re placed into your child’s eardrum by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon. The tubes may be made of plastic, metal, or other material.

  • Neck Masses

    Detailed information on the different types of neck masses in children

  • Overview of Neck Masses

    Detailed information on neck masses in children

  • Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) in Children

    NHL is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancing fluids in different parts of the body.

  • Nosebleeds

    Nosebleeds are fairly common in children, especially in dry climates or during the winter months, when dry heat inside homes and buildings can cause drying, cracking, or crusting inside the nose.

  • Nose and Throat Disorders

    Detailed information on nose and throat disorders in children

  • Online Resources - Ear, Nose, and Throat

    List of online resources to find additional information on ear, nose, and throat disorders

  • Swimmer’s Ear in Children

    Swimmer’s ear (otitis externa) is an inflammation of the external ear canal. Swimmer’s ear is caused by fungi or bacteria. Water that stays in the ear canal during swimming, for example, may let bacteria and fungi grow.

  • Pilomatrixoma in Children

    A pilomatrixoma (PEE-lo-may-trick-SO-mah) is a slow-growing, hard lump found under the skin. It is most common on the face and neck, but it may be on other parts of the body. A pilomatrixoma is usually a single lump, but occasionally, there may be more than one.

  • Allergic Rhinitis in Children

    Rhinitis is a reaction that happens in the eyes, nose, and throat when allergens in the air trigger the release of histamine in the body. Histamine causes itching, swelling, and fluid to build up in the fragile linings of nasal passages, sinuses, and eyelids.

  • Septoplasty in Children

    Septoplasty is surgery to fix a septum. The septum is the wall that divides your child's nose into two sides. It is made of soft cartilage and bone and is covered with a mucous membrane. A deviated septum is when the septum is not in the middle.

  • Sinusitis in Children

    Sinusitis is an infection of the sinuses. These infections usually happen after a cold or with allergies. There are 3 types of sinusitis: short term (acute), long-term (acute), and recurrent.

  • Topic Index - Ear, Nose, and Throat

    Detailed information on ear, nose, and throat disorders in children

  • Signs of Problems in Speech, Language, and Hearing Development:

    Detailed information on speech, language, and hearing problems during development

  • Stridor in Children

    Stridor is a noisy or high-pitched sound with breathing. It is a sign that the upper airway is partially blocked. It may involve the nose, mouth, sinuses, voice box (larynx), or windpipe (trachea).

  • Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy in Children

    A tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has throat infections that keep coming back. Adenoidectomy is recommended if your child has a lot of trouble breathing through the nose. Often the tonsils and adenoids are removed at the same time.

  • Thyroglossal Duct Cyst in Children

    A thyroglossal duct cyst is a pocket in the front part of neck that is filled with fluid. A child is born with this cyst.

  • Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis in Children

    Pharyngitis is redness, pain, and swelling of the throat (pharynx). Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils. The tonsils are a pair of tissue masses on either side of the back of the throat. They are part of the immune system, the part of the body that fights infection and other disease.

  • Congenital Muscular Torticollis

    Congenital torticollis means that a baby is born with an odd position of the neck. The odd position is because of a tight, short neck muscle. It affects the right side more often than the left side. It may range from mild to severe. The condition is sometimes called wryneck.

  • Age-Appropriate Speech and Hearing Milestones

    A hearing problem may be suspected in a child who is not responding to sounds or who is not developing language skills appropriately.