Ear, Nose, and Throat
Anatomy and Physiology of the Ear
The main parts of the ear are the outer ear, the eardrum (tympanic membrane), the middle ear, and the inner ear.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Detailed information on obstructive sleep apnea, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Anatomy and Physiology of the Nose and Throat
The sinuses are cavities, or air-filled pockets, near the nasal passage. They are lined with mucous membranes.
- Branchial Cleft Abnormalities in Children
A branchial cleft abnormality is a cluster of abnormally formed tissue in the neck. A branchial cleft abnormality is a birth defect. It happens when the area does not form as it should during the early stages of an embryo’s development.
Common Childhood External Ear Problems
Detailed information on common childhood external ear problems
Common Childhood Nose and Throat Illnesses
Detailed information on common childhood nose and throat problems in children
- Congenital Laryngeal Stridor in Children
Congenital laryngeal stridor is a noisy or high-pitched sound with breathing. It is from an abnormally formed voice box (larynx). It is present at birth (congenital).
- Dermoid Cyst in Children
A dermoid cyst is a pocket or hole under the skin. It contains tissue normally found in the outer layers of the skin. This might be hair follicles, oil, and sweat glands. Oil and sweat collect inside the cyst, causing it to get larger.
Detailed information on ear disorders in children
- Endoscopic Sinus Surgery in Children
Endoscopic sinus surgery is a procedure to open the passages of the nose and sinuses. It is done to treat long-term (chronic) sinus infections. An ear, nose, and throat specialist (ENT) does the surgery.
Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose, and Airway
Children usually place things in their ears because they are bored, curious, or copying other children. Some objects may cause no symptoms, but other objects, such as food and insects, may cause pain in the ear, redness, or drainage.
Hearing Loss in Children
Sensorineural hearing loss involves the inner ear or its connection with the brain. Conductive hearing loss involves the middle or outer ear.
Types of Hearing Tests for Infants and Children
One type of hearing screening test for newborns uses a tiny, flexible plug that is inserted into the baby's ear. The other type of test uses electrodes attached with adhesive to the baby's scalp.
Hearing Loss in Babies
Hearing loss in babies is rare in this country, but when it does occur, it's important to diagnose it early. Undetected hearing loss can delay speech and language development.
- Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children
Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancing fluids in different parts of the body.
Hearing Aids for Children
Hearing aids can help improve hearing and speech, especially in children with hearing loss in the inner ear caused by damaged hair cells or a damaged hearing nerve.
Hearing, Speech, and Language
Detailed information on hearing, speech, and language in children
Home Page - Ear, Nose, and Throat
Detailed information on ear, nose, and throat disorders in children
- Lymphadenopathy in Children
Lymphadenopathy is the term for swelling of the lymph nodes or glands. These are the bean-shaped glands in the neck, armpits, groin, chest, and abdomen. They act as filters for the lymph fluid as it flows through the body. Lymphadenopathy can occur in just one area of the body, such as the neck. Or it may affect lymph nodes throughout the body. The cervical lymph nodes, found in the neck, are the most common site of lymphadenopathy.
Detailed information on lymphatic malformation, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment
Detailed information on lymphatic masses in children
The Lymphatic System
Detailed anatomical information on the lymphatic system
Detailed information on mastoiditis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Management of Hearing Loss
A child's hearing loss may be helped with hearing aids or cochlear implants. Training in sign language and lip reading is another option.
Detailed information on tympanostomy tubes, including risks and benefits
Detailed information on the different types of neck masses in children
Overview of Neck Masses
Detailed information on neck masses in children
- Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) in Children
NHL is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancing fluids in different parts of the body.
Nosebleeds are fairly common in children, especially in dry climates or during the winter months, when dry heat inside homes and buildings can cause drying, cracking, or crusting inside the nose.
Nose and Throat Disorders
Detailed information on nose and throat disorders in children
Otitis Media (Middle Ear Infection)
Otitis media is inflammation in the middle ear. Otitis media can occur as a result of a cold, sore throat, or respiratory infection.
Online Resources - Ear, Nose, and Throat
List of online resources to find additional information on ear, nose, and throat disorders
- Swimmer’s Ear in Children
Swimmer’s ear (otitis externa) is an inflammation of the external ear canal. Swimmer’s ear is caused by fungi or bacteria. Water that stays in the ear canal during swimming, for example, may let bacteria and fungi grow.
- Pilomatrixoma in Children
A pilomatrixoma (PEE-lo-may-trick-SO-mah) is a slow-growing, hard lump found under the skin. It is most common on the face and neck, but it may be on other parts of the body. A pilomatrixoma is usually a single lump, but occasionally, there may be more than one.
- Allergic Rhinitis in Children
Rhinitis is a reaction that happens in the eyes, nose, and throat when allergens in the air trigger the release of histamine in the body. Histamine causes itching, swelling, and fluid to build up in the fragile linings of nasal passages, sinuses, and eyelids.
- Septoplasty in Children
Septoplasty is surgery to fix a septum. The septum is the wall that divides your child's nose into two sides. It is made of soft cartilage and bone and is covered with a mucous membrane. A deviated septum is when the septum is not in the middle.
- Sinusitis in Children
Sinusitis is an infection of the sinuses. These infections usually happen after a cold or with allergies. There are 3 types of sinusitis: short term (acute), long-term (acute), and recurrent.
Topic Index - Ear, Nose, and Throat
Detailed information on ear, nose, and throat disorders in children
Signs of Problems in Speech, Language, and Hearing Development:
Detailed information on speech, language, and hearing problems during development
- Stridor in Children
Stridor is a noisy or high-pitched sound with breathing. It is a sign that the upper airway is partially blocked. It may involve the nose, mouth, sinuses, voice box (larynx), or windpipe (trachea).
- Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy in Children
A tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has throat infections that keep coming back. Adenoidectomy is recommended if your child has a lot of trouble breathing through the nose. Often the tonsils and adenoids are removed at the same time.
- Thyroglossal Duct Cyst in Children
A thyroglossal duct cyst is a pocket in the front part of neck that is filled with fluid. A child is born with this cyst.
- Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis in Children
Pharyngitis is redness, pain, and swelling of the throat (pharynx). Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils. The tonsils are a pair of tissue masses on either side of the back of the throat. They are part of the immune system, the part of the body that fights infection and other disease.
Congenital Muscular Torticollis
Detailed information on congenital muscular torticollis, including causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Age-Appropriate Speech and Hearing Milestones
A hearing problem may be suspected in a child who is not responding to sounds or who is not developing language skills appropriately.