Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

What is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (also called PCOS or Stein Leventhal syndrome) is the most common hormonal and reproductive problem affecting women of childbearing age. It's estimated that about 5 percent of women in the U.S. have this disorder.

PCOS has been defined as the presence of any two of the following characteristics:

  • Lack of ovulation for an extended period of time

  • High levels of androgens (male hormones)

  • Many small cysts (fluid-filled sacs) on the ovaries

What causes PCOS?

The exact cause of PCOS is unclear. It's common for sisters or a mother and daughter to have PCOS, but a definite genetic link hasn't been found.

PCOS results from a combination of several related factors. Many women with PCOS have insulin resistance, in which the body can't use insulin efficiently. This leads to high circulating blood levels of insulin, called hyperinsulinemia. It's believed that hyperinsulinemia is related to increased androgen levels, as well as obesity and type 2 diabetes. In turn, obesity can increase insulin levels, causing worsening of PCOS.

How does PCOS affect ovulation?

Ovulation is a process in which a mature egg cell (also called an ovum), ready for fertilization by a sperm cell, is released from one of the ovaries (two female reproductive organs located in the pelvis). If the egg doesn't become fertilized as it travels down the fallopian tube on its way to the uterus, the endometrium (lining of the uterus) is shed and passes through the vagina (the passageway through which fluid passes out of the body during menstrual periods; also called the birth canal), in a process called menstruation.

With an ovulatory problem, the woman's reproductive system doesn't produce the proper amounts of hormones necessary to develop, mature, and release a healthy egg.

When the ovaries don't produce the hormones needed for ovulation and proper function of the menstrual cycle, the ovaries become enlarged and develop many small cysts which produce androgens.

Increased levels of androgens can also interfere with ovulation and normal menstrual cycles. Still, some women with polycystic ovaries have normal menstrual cycles.

What are the symptoms of PCOS?

The signs and symptoms of PCOS are related to hormonal imbalance, lack of ovulation, and insulin resistance and may include:

  • Irregular, infrequent, or absent menstrual periods

  • Hirsutism (excessive growth of body and facial hair, including the chest, stomach, and back)

  • Acne or oily skin

  • Enlarged and/or polycystic ovaries

  • Infertility (the inability to produce children)

  • Overweight or obesity, especially around the waist (central obesity) and abdomen

  • Male-pattern baldness or thinning hair

  • Skin tags (small pieces of skin on the neck or armpits)

  • Acanthosis nigricans (darkened skin areas on the back of the neck, in the armpits, and under the breasts)

In addition, women with PCOS may be at increased risk for developing certain health problems. These may include:

  • Metabolic syndrome, a condition with several components, including:

    • Type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance

    • Elevated cholesterol levels

    • High blood pressure

    • Excess body weight, especially around the waist and abdomen

    • Elevated levels of C-reactive protein (a marker of inflammation)

    • Elevated blood clotting factors

  • Heavy or irregular bleeding and endometrial cancer. Lack of ovulation for an extended period of time may cause excessive thickening of the endometrium (the lining of the uterus).

The symptoms of PCOS may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult a health care provider for a diagnosis.

How is PCOS diagnosed?

In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for PCOS may include:

  • Pelvic examination. This involves a physical examination of both the external and internal female reproductive organs.

  • Ultrasound (also called sonography). Ultrasound is a diagnostic imaging technique which uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs as they function, and to assess blood flow through various vessels. Ultrasound can determine if a woman's ovaries are enlarged or if cysts are present, and to evaluate the thickness of the endometrium. A vaginal ultrasound, in which an ultrasound transducer is inserted into the vagina, is sometimes used to view the endometrium.

  • Blood tests. These tests are used to detect increased levels of androgens and other hormones.

Other tests may be used to identify problems related to PCOS and may include:

  • Glucose screening test for blood sugar levels

  • Blood levels for cholesterol and triglycerides

What is the treatment for PCOS?

Specific treatment for PCOS will be determined by your doctor based on:

  • Your age, overall health, and medical history

  • Extent of the disorder

  • Cause of the disorder

  • Your signs and symptoms

  • Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies

  • Expectations for the course of the disorder

  • Your opinion or preference

Treatment for PCOS also depends on whether or not a woman wants to become pregnant.

For women who don't want to become pregnant, treatment is focused on correcting the abnormal hormone levels, weight reduction, and managing cosmetic concerns. Treatment may include:

  • Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) to regulate menstrual cycles, decrease androgen levels, and control acne

  • Diabetes medications (Metformin, a medication used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, is often used to decrease insulin resistance in PCOS. It may also help reduce androgen levels, slow hair growth, and help a woman ovulate more regularly. The safety of this medication in pregnancy hasn't been established.)

  • Weight reduction (a healthy diet and increased physical activity allow more efficient use of insulin and decrease blood glucose levels)

  • Medications to treat hair growth or acne

For women who want to become pregnant, treatment is focused on weight reduction and promoting ovulation. Treatment may include:

  • Weight reduction (A healthy diet and increased physical activity allow more efficient use of insulin, decrease blood glucose levels, and may help a woman ovulate more regularly.)

  • Ovulation induction medications. (These medications stimulate the ovary to make one or more follicles [sacs that contain eggs] and release the egg for fertilization. For women with PCOS, these medications also increase the risks for having a multiple birth [twins or more] and ovarian hyperstimulation, a condition of excessive stimulation of the ovaries that can cause hormone changes, abdominal bloating, and pelvic pain.)

Women sometimes struggle with the physical changes that occur with PCOS, such as weight gain, hair growth, and acne. In addition to diet and medications, cosmetic procedures, such as electrolysis and laser hair removal can often help a woman feel better about her appearance.

Because of the possible long-term health risks for PCOS, including heart disease and type 2 diabetes, women with PCOS should consult their health care provider about appropriate treatment.

Douglas T. Carrell, Ph.D., H.C.L.D.

Doug Carrell received his Ph.D. degree in reproductive physiology from the University of Utah in 1995, after receiving a M.S. degree in cellular and developmental biology from Brigham Young University. Dr. Carrell has worked in the area of research and treatment of human infertility for 30 years. Dr. Carrell is the clinical laboratory director of t... Read More


Andrology, In Vitro Fertilization, Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility


Andrology & IVF Laboratories (801) 581-3740

Jessie A. Dorais, M.D.

Jessie Dorais, M.D. as a Clinical Assistant Professor, in the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility. Dr. Dorais received a Bachelor of Science degree in Biology from Brigham Young University in 2003, and her M.D. from the University of Illinois, College of Medicine in 2007. She completed her Obstetrics & Gynecology residency ... Read More

James M. Hotaling, M.D., M.S., FECSM

Dr. Hotaling has significant training in both the clinical aspects of male fertility and genetic epidemiology and he is currently the only fellowship trained male infertility/andrology expert in Utah. He completed a 6 year residency in urology at the University of Washington, elected to pursue a year of sub-specialty training in male infertility ... Read More

Erica B. Johnstone, M.D.

Erica B. Johnstone, M.D., M.H.S., is a gynecologist and reproductive endocrinologist in the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility. Dr. Johnstone clinical interests include reproductive endocrine disorders and all types of infertility, and she also works with hormonal disorders in children and adolescents. Her research interests in... Read More

William R. Keye, M.D.

William R. Keye, M.D., is a board-certified physician specializing in obstetrics and gynecology, as well as reproductive endocrinology and infertility. He received his medical degree from the University of Minnesota, and was an original member of the University of Utah’s I.V.F.(in vitro fertilization) team. He served as Director of that team until ... Read More


Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility


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Andrew K. Moore, M.D.

Dr. Moore is pleased to bring the University of Utah’s world-class reproductive medicine closer to home for Utah Valley and southern Salt Lake county residents. He has office hourse each week in South Jordan and Orem. Dr. Moore's clinical interests include the full breadth of reproductive endocrinology and fertility treatment, as well as speciali... Read More

C. Matthew Peterson, M.D.

Matthew Peterson, M.D., is a Reproductive Endocrinologist in the University of Utah Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Dr. Peterson received his undergraduate degree, magna cum laude from Brigham Young University in 1977 and his M.D. from the University of Utah in 1981. His residency training in obstetrics and gynecology was accomplished at M... Read More

Reproductive Medicine services are available at the Utah Center for Reproductive Medicine as well as multiple locations through out the state of Utah, including Centerville, Orem, South Jordan and Park City. Our reproductive endocrinologists offer a wide range of services including:

  • Infertility counseling
  • Infertility monitoring and treatment
  • IUD insertion and removal
  • Annual gynecological exams
  • Endocrinology
  • Diagnosis and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome
  • In vitro fertilization
  • Treatment of endometriosis
  • Pediatric and adolescent gynecology services

Our highly trained reproductive endocrinology specialists are experts in both the treatment and research of infertility and our clinic consistently boasts one of the highest success rates in the nation.

Neighborhood Health Center Locations:

Utah Center for Reproductive Medicine 675 Arapeen Way, Suite 205
Salt Lake City, Utah 84108-1237
University of Utah Health Care
Centerville Health Center
26 South Main
Centerville, Utah 84014
Dixie Regional Medical Center 544 South 300 East
St. George, UT 84770
McKay Dee Hospital 4401 Harrison Blvd.
Ogden, UT 84403
University of Utah Health Care
Redstone Health Center
1743 W. Redstone Center Drive, #115
Park City, Utah 84098
University of Utah Health Care
South Jordan Health Center
5126 W. Daybreak Parkway
South Jordan, 84095
Utah Valley Regional Medical Center
Woman’s and Children’s Clinic
1034 N 500 W
Provo, Utah 84604
    Keywords: Endometriosis
    Status: Active, not recruiting
  • Healthy Conceptions for Couples Intervention Pilot Study
    Keywords: Infertility, Obesity, polycystic ovarian syndrome, emotionally focused therapy, weight loss
    Status: Recruiting
    Keywords: Fertility, reproductive medicine, pregnancy outcomes, folic acid and zinc supplementation trial, semen quality, infertility
    Status: Recruiting