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Benjamin Brooke, M.D., Ph.D.

Specialties

Languages

  • English

Clinical Details

Schedule An Appointment Clinical Office Address
(801) 581-3495 University Hospital
Cardiovascular Center
50 N Medical Dr
Salt Lake City, UT 84132
Map

Bio

Dr. Brooke grew up in Salt Lake City and received his Doctor of Medicine from the University of Utah before heading east to complete his internship and residency in General Surgery at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. During his Halsted residency, he received his Ph.D. in Clinical Investigation at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He then completed his fellowship in Vascular Surgery at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center.

Dr. Brooke’s clinical practice is focused on the open and endovascular treatment of aortic, visceral, carotid, and lower extremity arterial disease. He will also provide dialysis vascular access, and both open and catheter-based treatment of lower extremity venous reflux and varicose veins. Dr. Brooke is board certified in General Surgery and board eligible in Vascular Surgery.

In addition to his clinical practice, Dr. Brooke is actively involved in health service research aimed at improving quality and clinical outcomes within the Department of Surgery and the Cardiovascular Service Line. He will lead surgical implementation research within the newly created Program for Health System Innovation and Research (HSIR). Dr. Brooke is also helping to establish the Utah Intervention Quality and Implementation Research (U-INQUIRE) group, directed at improving surgical quality and providing clinical research support for all surgical and interventional specialties within the University of Utah Health System.

Board Certification and Academic Information

Academic Departments Surgery - Assistant Professor
Academic Divisions Vascular Surgery

Academic Profile

Board Certification and Academic Information

Academic Departments Surgery - Assistant Professor
Academic Divisions Vascular Surgery

Academic Office Locations

Academic Office Phone Number Academic Office Address
(801) 581-3495 CardioVascular Clinic
Vascular Surgery
University Hospital
Salt Lake City, UT 84112

Academic Bio

Dr. Brooke grew up in Salt Lake City and received his Doctor of Medicine from the University of Utah before heading east to complete his internship and residency in General Surgery at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. During his Halsted residency, he received his Ph.D. in Clinical Investigation at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He then completed his fellowship in Vascular Surgery at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center.

Dr. Brooke’s clinical practice is focused on the open and endovascular treatment of aortic, visceral, carotid, and lower extremity arterial disease. He will also provide dialysis vascular access, and both open and catheter-based treatment of lower extremity venous reflux and varicose veins. Dr. Brooke is board certified in General Surgery and board eligible in Vascular Surgery.

In addition to his clinical practice, Dr. Brooke is actively involved in health service research aimed at improving quality and clinical outcomes within the Department of Surgery and the Cardiovascular Service Line. He will lead surgical implementation research within the newly created Program for Health System Innovation and Research (HSIR). Dr. Brooke also has helped to establish and lead the Utah Intervention Quality and Implementation Research (U-INQUIRE) group, directed at improving quality of surgical care and providing clinical research support for all surgical and interventional specialties within the University of Utah Health System.

Education

Education History

Type School Degree
Chief Resident Johns Hopkins Hospital
Administrative Chief Resident, General Surgery
Chief Resident
Doctoral Training Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health & School of Medicine
Graduate Training Program in Clinical Investigation
Ph.D.
Internship/Residency Johns Hopkins Hospital
General Surgery
Intern/Resident
Research Fellow Johns Hopkins Hospital
Surgery
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Professional Medical University of Utah School of Medicine
Medicine
M.D.
Undergraduate University of Virginia
Biology
B.A.
Fellowship Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center
Vascular Surgery
Fellow

Publications

Selected Provider Publications

Journal Article

  1. Relationship between regional spending on vascular care and amputation rate.Goodney PP, Travis LL, Brooke BS, DeMartino RR, Goodman DC, Fisher ES, Birkmeyer JD (2014). Relationship between regional spending on vascular care and amputation rate. JAMA Surg, 149(1), 34-42.
  2. National trends in utilization, mortality, and survival after repair of type B aortic dissection in the Medicare population.LID - S0741-5214(14)00098-6 [pii]LID - 10.1016/j.jvs.2013.12.047 [doi]Jones DW, Goodney PP, Nolan BW, Brooke BS, Fillinger MF, Powell RJ, Stone DH (2014). National trends in utilization, mortality, and survival after repair of type B aortic dissection in the Medicare population.LID - S0741-5214(14)00098-6 [pii]LID - 10.1016/j.jvs.2013.12.047 [doi]. J Vasc Surg.
  3. Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair, race, and volume in thoracic aneurysm repair.Goodney PP, Brooke BS, Wallaert J, Travis L, Lucas FL, Goodman DC, Cronenwett JL, Stone DH (2013). Thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair, race, and volume in thoracic aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg, 57(1), 56-63.
  4. Clinical effectiveness of secondary interventions for restenosis after renal artery stenting.Simone TA, Brooke BS, Goodney PP, Walsh DB, Stone DH, Powell RJ, Cronenwett JL, Nolan BW (2013). Clinical effectiveness of secondary interventions for restenosis after renal artery stenting. J Vasc Surg, 58(3), 687-94.
  5. Designation as "unfit for open repair" is associated with poor outcomes after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.De Martino RR, Brooke BS, Robinson W, Schanzer A, Indes JE, Wallaert JB, Nolan BW, Cronenwett JL, Goodney PP (2013). Designation as "unfit for open repair" is associated with poor outcomes after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes, 6(5), 575-81.
  6. Goodney PP, Brooke BS, Travis L, Lucas FL, Goodman DC, Cronenwett JL, Stone DH (2013). Race, volume, and disparities in surgical care: how TEVAR “leveled the playing field”. J Vasc Surg.
  7. Endovascular procedures in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a review of clinical outcomes and iatrogenic complications.Lum YW, Brooke BS, Arnaoutakis GJ, Williams TK, Black JH 3rd (2012). Endovascular procedures in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: a review of clinical outcomes and iatrogenic complications. Ann Vasc Surg, 26(1), 25-33.
  8. Variations in surgical outcomes associated with hospital compliance with safety practices.Brooke BS, Dominici F, Pronovost PJ, Makary MA, Schneider E, Pawlik TM (2012). Variations in surgical outcomes associated with hospital compliance with safety practices. Surgery, 151(5), 651-9.
  9. Vascular complications of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: CT findings.Chu LC, Johnson PT, Dietz HC, Brooke BS, Arnaoutakis GJ, Black JH 3rd, Fishman EK (2012). Vascular complications of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol, 198(2), 482-7.
  10. Patient readmission and mortality after colorectal surgery for colon cancer: impact of length of stay relative to other clinical factors.Schneider EB, Hyder O, Brooke BS, Efron J, Cameron JL, Edil BH, Schulick RD, Choti MA, Wolfgang CL, Pawlik TM (2012). Patient readmission and mortality after colorectal surgery for colon cancer: impact of length of stay relative to other clinical factors. J Am Coll Surg, 214(4), 390-8; discussion 398-9.
  11. Impact of anterior scalene lidocaine blocks on predicting surgical success in older patients with neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome.Lum YW, Brooke BS, Likes K, Modi M, Grunebach H, Christo PJ, Freischlag JA (2012). Impact of anterior scalene lidocaine blocks on predicting surgical success in older patients with neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome. J Vasc Surg, 55(5), 1370-5.
  12. Developing strategies for predicting and preventing readmissions in vascular surgery.Brooke BS, De Martino RR, Girotti M, Dimick JB, Goodney PP (2012). Developing strategies for predicting and preventing readmissions in vascular surgery. J Vasc Surg, 56(2), 556-62.
  13. Early discharge does not increase readmission or mortality risk after high-risk vascular surgery.LID - S0741-5214(12)01748-X [pii]LID - 10.1016/j.jvs.2012.07.055 [doi]Brooke BS, Goodney PP, Powell RJ, Fillinger MF, Travis LL, Goodman DC, Cronenwett JL, Stone DH (2012). Early discharge does not increase readmission or mortality risk after high-risk vascular surgery.LID - S0741-5214(12)01748-X [pii]LID - 10.1016/j.jvs.2012.07.055 [doi]. J Vasc Surg.
  14. Contemporary management of vascular complications associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.Brooke BS, Arnaoutakis G, McDonnell NB, Black JH 3rd (2010). Contemporary management of vascular complications associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. J Vasc Surg, 51(1), 131-8; discussion 138-9.
  15. Improving surgical outcomes through adoption of evidence-based process measures: intervention specific or associated with overall hospital quality?Brooke BS, Meguid RA, Makary MA, Perler BA, Pronovost PJ, Pawlik TM (2010). Improving surgical outcomes through adoption of evidence-based process measures: intervention specific or associated with overall hospital quality? Surgery, 147(4), 481-90.
  16. Venous duplex scanning for suspected deep vein thrombosis: results before and after elimination of after-hours studies.Arnaoutakis GJ, Pirrucello J, Brooke BS, Reifsnyder T (2010). Venous duplex scanning for suspected deep vein thrombosis: results before and after elimination of after-hours studies. Vasc Endovascular Surg, 44(5), 329-33.
  17. Celiprolol therapy for vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.Brooke BS (2010). Celiprolol therapy for vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Lancet, 376(9751), 1443-4.
  18. Trends in the quality of highly cited surgical research over the past 20 years.Brooke BS, Nathan H, Pawlik TM (2009). Trends in the quality of highly cited surgical research over the past 20 years. Ann Surg, 249(1), 162-7.
  19. Predictable patterns of intracranial and cervical spine injury in craniomaxillofacial trauma: analysis of 4786 patients.Mithani SK, St-Hilaire H, Brooke BS, Smith IM, Bluebond-Langner R, Rodriguez ED (2009). Predictable patterns of intracranial and cervical spine injury in craniomaxillofacial trauma: analysis of 4786 patients. Plast Reconstr Surg, 123(4), 1293-301.
  20. Impact of hospital teaching status on survival from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.Meguid RA, Brooke BS, Perler BA, Freischlag JA (2009). Impact of hospital teaching status on survival from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg, 50(2), 243-50.
  21. Use of beta-blockers during aortic aneurysm repair: bridging the gap between evidence and effective practice.Brooke BS, Dominici F, Makary MA, Pronovost PJ (2009). Use of beta-blockers during aortic aneurysm repair: bridging the gap between evidence and effective practice. Health Aff (Millwood), 28(4), 1199-209.
  22. Are surgical outcomes for lung cancer resections improved at teaching hospitals?Meguid RA, Brooke BS, Chang DC, Sherwood JT, Brock MV, Yang SC (2008). Are surgical outcomes for lung cancer resections improved at teaching hospitals? Ann Thorac Surg, 85(3), 1015-24; discussion 1024-5.
  23. Reduction of in-hospital mortality among California hospitals meeting Leapfrog evidence-based standards for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.Brooke BS, Perler BA, Dominici F, Makary MA, Pronovost PJ (2008). Reduction of in-hospital mortality among California hospitals meeting Leapfrog evidence-based standards for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg, 47(6), 1155-6; discussion 1163-4.
  24. Angiotensin II blockade and aortic-root dilation in Marfan's syndrome.Brooke BS, Habashi JP, Judge DP, Patel N, Loeys B, Dietz HC 3rd (2008). Angiotensin II blockade and aortic-root dilation in Marfan's syndrome. N Engl J Med, 358(26), 2787-95.
  25. Preoperative statin and diuretic use influence the presentation of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy: results of a large single-institution case-control study.Brooke BS, McGirt MJ, Woodworth GF, Chang DC, Roseborough GS, Freischlag JA, Perler BA (2007). Preoperative statin and diuretic use influence the presentation of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy: results of a large single-institution case-control study. J Vasc Surg, 45(2), 298-303.
  26. Hyperglycemia independently increases the risk of perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, and death after carotid endarterectomy.McGirt MJ, Woodworth GF, Brooke BS, Coon AL, Jain S, Buck D, Huang J, Clatterbuck RE, Tamargo RJ, Perler BA (2006). Hyperglycemia independently increases the risk of perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, and death after carotid endarterectomy. Neurosurgery, 58(6), 1066-73; discussion 1066-73.
  27. Patterns and outcomes among penetrating trauma recidivists: it only gets worse.Brooke BS, Efron DT, Chang DC, Haut ER, Cornwell EE 3rd (2006). Patterns and outcomes among penetrating trauma recidivists: it only gets worse. J Trauma, 61(1), 16-9; discussion 20.
  28. Alarming surge in nonsurvivable urban trauma and the case for violence prevention.Efron DT, Haider A, Chang D, Haut ER, Brooke B, Cornwell EE 3rd (2006). Alarming surge in nonsurvivable urban trauma and the case for violence prevention. Arch Surg, 141(8), 800-3; discussion 803-5.
  29. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors reduce the risk of perioperative stroke and mortality after carotid endarterectomy.McGirt MJ, Perler BA, Brooke BS, Woodworth GF, Coon A, Jain S, Buck D, Roseborough GS, Tamargo RJ, Heller J, Freischlag JA, Williams GM (2005). 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors reduce the risk of perioperative stroke and mortality after carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc Surg, 42(5), 829-36; discussion 836-7.
  30. A critical role for elastin signaling in vascular morphogenesis and disease.Karnik SK, Brooke BS, Bayes-Genis A, Sorensen L, Wythe JD, Schwartz RS, Keating MT, Li DY (2003). A critical role for elastin signaling in vascular morphogenesis and disease. Development, 130(2), 411-23.
  31. Loss of distinct arterial and venous boundaries in mice lacking endoglin, a vascular-specific TGFbeta coreceptor.Sorensen LK, Brooke BS, Li DY, Urness LD (2003). Loss of distinct arterial and venous boundaries in mice lacking endoglin, a vascular-specific TGFbeta coreceptor. Dev Biol, 261(1), 235-50.
  32. Elastin induces myofibrillogenesis via a specific domain, VGVAPG.Karnik SK, Wythe JD, Sorensen L, Brooke BS, Urness LD, Li DY (2003). Elastin induces myofibrillogenesis via a specific domain, VGVAPG. Matrix Biol, 22(5), 409-25.
  33. Defective angiogenesis in mice lacking endoglin.Li DY, Sorensen LK, Brooke BS, Urness LD, Davis EC, Taylor DG, Boak BB, Wendel DP (1999). Defective angiogenesis in mice lacking endoglin. Science, 284(5419), 1534-7.
  34. Elastin is an essential determinant of arterial morphogenesis.Li DY, Brooke B, Davis EC, Mecham RP, Sorensen LK, Boak BB, Eichwald E, Keating MT (1998). Elastin is an essential determinant of arterial morphogenesis. Nature, 393(6682), 276-80.

Review

  1. Contemporary management of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.Lum YW, Brooke BS, Black JH 3rd (2011). Contemporary management of vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. [Review]. Curr Opin Cardiol, 26(6), 494-501.
  2. Perioperative beta-blockers for vascular surgery patients.Brooke BS (2010). Perioperative beta-blockers for vascular surgery patients. [Review]. J Vasc Surg, 51(2), 515-9.
  3. Contemporary management of thoracic outlet syndrome.Brooke BS, Freischlag JA (2010). Contemporary management of thoracic outlet syndrome. [Review]. Curr Opin Cardiol, 25(6), 535-40.
  4. Extracellular matrix in vascular morphogenesis and disease: structure versus signal.Brooke BS, Karnik SK, Li DY (2003). Extracellular matrix in vascular morphogenesis and disease: structure versus signal. [Review]. Trends Cell Biol, 13(1), 51-6.
  5. New insights into elastin and vascular disease.Brooke BS, Bayes-Genis A, Li DY (2003). New insights into elastin and vascular disease. [Review]. Trends Cardiovasc Med, 13(5), 176-81.

Book Chapter

  1. Brooke BS, Malas MB (2011). Management of Recurrent Carotid Artery Stenosis. In Cameron JL, Cameron AL (Ed.), Current Surgical Therapy (10th, pp. 735-742). Philadelphia, PA: Mosby-Elsevier.
  2. Brooke BS, Perler BA (2010). Chapter 23: Effect of Statins on Carotid Endarterectomy. In Eskandari MK, Pearce WH, Yao JST (Ed.), Modern Trends in Vascular Surgery – Carotid Artery Disease (pp. 221-231). Shelton, CT: People’s Medical Publishing House.
  3. Brooke BS, Black JH (2008). Chapter 2: Clinical Vascular Examination. In Mauro MA, Murphy KPJ, Thomson KR, Venbrux AC, Zollikofer CL (Ed.), Image-guided Interventions (pp. 17-24). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
  4. Brooke BS, Perler BA (2007). Chapter 10: Effect of statin therapy on postoperative outcomes following carotid endarterectomy. In Pearce WH, Matsumura JS, Yao JST (Ed.), Trends in Vascular Surgery 2006 (pp. 83-93). Evanston, IL: Greenwood Academic.
  5. Brooke BS (2006). Chapter 13: Remember that amiodarone causes hypothyroidism. In Marcucci L, Martinez E, Haut E, Slonim A, Suarez J (Ed.), Avoiding Common ICU Errors (p. 32). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  6. Brooke BS (2006). Chapter 22: Do not use vasopressin in patients with heart failure or mesenteric ischemia. In Marcucci L, Martinez E, Haut E, Slonim A, Suarez J (Ed.), Avoiding Common ICU Errors (p. 52). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  7. Brooke BS (2006). Chapter 59: Do not place central access in the right internal jugular in cardiac transplant patients. In Marcucci L, Martinez E, Haut E, Slonim A, Suarez J (Ed.), Avoiding Common ICU Errors (p. 138). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Case Report

  1. Image of the month. Encapsulated fat necrosis.Brooke BS, Choti MA (2011). Image of the month. Encapsulated fat necrosis. Arch Surg, 146(12), 1447-8.
  2. Retroperitoneal gunshot wound hernia: an unusual cause of early postoperative small bowel obstruction after laparotomy for trauma.Meneshian A, Brooke B, Cornwell EE 3rd, Haut ER (2008). Retroperitoneal gunshot wound hernia: an unusual cause of early postoperative small bowel obstruction after laparotomy for trauma. J Trauma, 64(1), 213-4.

Letter

  1. Reply.Goodney PP, Stone DH, Brooke BS (2014). Reply [Letter to the editor]. J Vasc Surg, 59(2), 572.
  2. The prevalence of cervical spine injury, head injury, or both with isolated and multiple craniomaxillofacial fractures.Mithani SK, Kelamis JA, Mundinger GS, Brooke BS, Smith IM, Bluebond-Langner R, Rodriguez E (2012). The prevalence of cervical spine injury, head injury, or both with isolated and multiple craniomaxillofacial fractures [Letter to the editor]. Plast Reconstr Surg, 129(1), 163e; author reply 163e-164e.

Abstract

  1. Chu LC, Johnson PT, Brooke B, Arnaoutakis G, Black JH, Fishman EK (2010). Vascular complications of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: State-of-the-art in CT Angiography and 3D Mapping. [Abstract presented at the Radiological Society of North America, December, 2010.] [Abstract].
  2. Brooke BS, Simone ST, Goodney PP, DeMartino RR, Walsh DB, Stone DH, Powell RJ, Cronenwett JL, Nolan BW (2010). Clinical Effectiveness of Secondary Interventions for Restenosis Following Renal Artery Angioplasty and Stenting: Does it Help, Hurt, or Even Make a Difference? [Abstract accepted for oral presentation at the 39th Annual Meeting of the New England Society for Vascular Surgery, September 21-23, Boston, MA.] [Abstract].
  3. Brooke BS, Meguid RA, Perler BA, Makary MA, Pronovost PJ, Pawlik TM (2009). Adopting Evidence-Based Process Measures in Surgery: Intervention Specific or Associated with Overall Hospital Quality? [Abstract]. J Am Coll Surg, 207(3S), S74.
  4. Brooke BS, Arnaoutakis G, McDonnell N, Black JH (2009). Contemporary Management of Vascular Complications Associated with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome [Abstract]. J Vasc Surg, 49(5), S9-S10.
  5. Swanson JW, Brooke BS, Mithani SK, Smith IM, Manson PN, Rodriguez ED (2008). The association of facial fracture and traumatic internal carotid injuries. [Abstract presented at the 3rd Annual Academic Surgical Congress, 2008.] [Abstract].
  6. Brooke BS, Nathan H, Pawlik TM (2008). Trends in quality of highly cited surgical evidence over the last twenty years. [Abstract presented at the 3rd Annual Academic Surgical Congress, 2008.] [Abstract].
  7. McGirt MJ, Woodworth GF, Coon A, Brooke BS, Buck D, Huang J, Clatterbuck RE, Perler BA, Tamargo RJ (2006). Hyperglycemia independently increases the risk of perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction, and death after carotid endarterectomy. [Abstract presented at Congress of Neurological Surgery, 2006.] [Abstract].
  8. Brooke BS, Habashi JP, Dietz HC (2006). Losartan decreases aortic root dilation in Marfan syndrome. [Abstract presented at the American Society of Human Genetics 56th Annual Meeting. New Orleans, LA, October 2006.] [Abstract].
  9. Efron DT, Haider A, Chang DC, Haut E, Brooke BS, Cornwell EE (2006). Where They Die, How They Die: Evolving Patterns of Urban Trauma Mortality and the Case for Violence Prevention. [Abstract presented at the Pacific Coast Surgical Meeting, February 2006.] [Abstract].
  10. Matsen SL, Chang DC, Brooke BS, Perler BA (2005). Predictors of stroke following carotid endarterectomy. [Abstract presented at Eastern Vascular Society Meeting, Pittsburgh 2005] [Abstract].
  11. McGirt MJ, Coon A, Woodward GF, Brooke BS, Jain S, Buck DW, Perler BA, Tamargo RJ (2005). Selective versus routine intraluminal carotid artery shunting guided by intraoperative electroencephalography (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring reduces the risk of perioperative stroke after carotid endarterectomy. [Abstract presented to Congress of Neurological Surgeons, Boston 2005.] [Abstract].
  12. McGirt MJ, Coon A, Woodworth GF, Brooke BS, Jain S, Buck D, Tamargo RJ, Perler BA (2005). Surgeon frequency, not cumulative volume is associated with perioperative morbidity after carotid endarterectomy. [Abstract presented to the Congress of Neurological Surgery, Boston 2005.] [Abstract].
  13. Brooke BS, Morshedzadeh J, Kraiss LW, Li DY (2002). Remodeling of elastin matrix biomaterial in a porcine arteriotomy model [Abstract]. J Am Coll Surg, 195(3S), S97.
  14. Opperman LA, Brooke BS, Chhabra A, Nolen AA, Ogle RC (1995). Expression of Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-ß1,2, & 3 by dura mater: Role in regulating cranial suture morphogenesis [Abstract]. Proceedings of the American Society of Cell Biology Meeting.
  15. Urch SE, Kittridge BW, Liu GC, Brooke BS, OShea JJ, Ogle RC, Sweeney TM (1995). Type I collagen gels promote repair of segmental rat femoral defects through endochondral ossification [Abstract]. JBJS Orthop Trans, 19(4), 1023.
  16. Sweeney TM, Brooke BS, Ogle RC (1994). Analysis of bone repair using three dimensional reconstructions of computed tomography [Abstract]. JBJS-Orthop Trans, 18(3), 922.
  17. Sweeney TM, Chhabra A, Brooke BS, Opperman LA, and RC Ogle (1994). Type I collagen gels mediate total repair of critical size bone defects through intramembranous ossification [Abstract]. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-Orthopaedic Transactions, 18(2), 523.

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