About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Leukemia is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many of a type of blood cell or abnormal blood cells. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. CLL does not have obvious symptoms. It is usually found during a routine blood test.
Signs & Symptoms
These are signs of CLL:
- Pain or feeling of fullness below the ribs
- Fever and infection
- Weakness or tiredness
- Weight loss for no known reason
- Painless swelling in the neck, underarm, stomach, or groin
Many other health problems can also cause these signs. If you have any of these signs, see your doctor as soon as possible.
Learn more about chronic lymphocytic leukemia from the National Cancer Institute.
As a cancer specialty hospital, we serve hundreds of patients with CLL each year. Our team of doctors dedicated to treating CLL cancer patients includes a wide range of specialties and have decades of collective experience. Our team is made up of:
- Medical, radiation, and surgery doctors
- Diagnostic specialists such as radiologists and pathologists
- Genetic counselors
- Nurses, dietitians, and social workers
Our care teams include nurses, advanced care nurses, and physician assistants. These health care professionals are always available to answer your questions and help with your concerns. Patients also have access to Huntsman Cancer Institute Acute Care (HAC), which offers same-day care for our cancer patients who need quick treatment for side effects and other issues.
Find a Leukemia Doctor
The treatment or combination of treatments each patient has depends on the recommendations of the care team and the patient’s wishes. Our team of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) specialists reviews each patient’s case, coordinates treatment, and plans follow-up care. Huntsman Cancer Institute’s Hematologic Cancers Program provides comprehensive, compassionate, state-of-the-art care for people with all types of blood cancers and conditions. Possible treatments include:
- Watchful waiting
- Radiation therapy
- Targeted oral therapies (ibrutinib, venetoclax, idelalisib, novel agents)
- Bone marrow/Stem cell transplantation
- CAR T cell therapy
- Clinical Trials
For all CLL patients, including those not on active therapy, we offer individualized counseling on risk of infection and development of secondary cancers.
- Counseling and administration of appropriate vaccinations
- Counseling and scheduling of other cancer screenings including skin cancer checks, colonoscopies, mammograms, and prostate cancer screenings.
Learn more about types of cancer treatments.
Clinical trials can offer new hope for cancer patients. Our patients have the best access to clinical trials. Many are initiated right here at Huntsman Cancer Institute, and we participate in many regional and nationwide studies as well. On average, we have numerous clinical trials for this cancer available to patients every year. We always have the newest and best new CLL drugs available on clinical trials.
We collaborate with cancer researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute to develop new and better cancer treatments, ways to detect cancers earlier, and to better understand how the needs of people affected by their families.
As a patient, you will have the opportunity to donate your cancer cells to be used:
- In the lab to test new cancer drugs before they are used in people
- To discover genetic links in the transmission of CLL
- To research patterns of resistance to current therapy
Causes & Risk Factors
Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean you are sure to get cancer. It means your chances are higher than the average person’s. Talk with your doctor to learn more about your cancer risk.
These are risk factors for CLL:
- Being male
- Being white
- Increasing age
- Having a family history of CLL or cancer of the lymph system
- Having relatives who are Russian Jews or Eastern European Jews
Diagnosis & Stages
Diagnosis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Doctors use these tests to diagnose CLL:
- Physical exam and history: A health care provider examines your body for signs of disease. Your personal health habits, past illnesses, and symptoms help guide the exam.
- Laboratory tests: By testing body tissues, blood, urine, or other substances in the body, your health care team can check to see how the organs are functioning. They also look for abnormal amounts of blood cells.
- Bone marrow biopsy: The health care provider removes a small sample of bone marrow to look for abnormal cells under a microscope.
Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Staging is the process that shows if cancer has spread in the blood and bone marrow. These are the stages for CLL:
- Stage 0: There are too many lymphocytes in the blood, but there are no other signs or symptoms. This is often called indolent CLL.
- Stage I: There are too many lymphocytes in the blood and lymph nodes are larger than normal.
- Stage II: There are too many lymphocytes in the blood, lymph nodes are larger than normal, and the liver or spleen is larger than normal.
- Stage III: There are too many lymphocytes in the blood and the lymph nodes, liver, or spleen may be larger than normal. There are too few red blood cells.
- Stage IV: There are too many lymphocytes in the blood and the lymph nodes, liver, or spleen may be larger than normal. There may be too few red blood cells, and there are too few platelets.
Learn more about the stages of CLL from the National Cancer Institute.